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1496. 



KEY TO THE FAMILIES OF NORTH 
AMERICAN INSECTS 



AN INTRODUCTION TO THE CLASSIFICATION 
OF INSECTS 



BY 

CHARLES T. BRUES 

Assistant Professor of Economic Entomology 
Harvard University 



AND 

A. L. MELANDER 

Professor of Entomology, State College 
of Washington 



BOSTON, MASS., AND PULLMAN, WASH. 

Published by the Authors 

1915 



Copyright, 1915 

Charles T. Brues, and A. L. Melander 
Published March, 1915 



THE RUMFORD PRESS 

CONCORD, N. H. 

U.S.A. 



TO OUR FORMER TEACHERS, 
HERBERT EUGENE WALTER, 
OLIVER S. WESTCOTT, AND 
WILLIAM MORTON WHEELER, 
THIS BOOK IS DEDICATED. 



2051559 



PREFACE. 

The present manual attempts to bring together a brief yet com- 
plete key to the families of American insects, unhampered by more 
than the explanations needed to make such a tabulation available 
to the general student. It has been prepared to meet the require- 
ments, not alone of college courses in systematic entomology, but 
also of agricultural high schools and of physicians, fruit inspectors, 
the modern farmer, the nature-lover, or any one who is concerned 
with the practical identification of insects. 

More than fifty thousand different species of insects are now 
known from North America. Their descriptions fill libraries and 
their final identification requires the knowledge of specialists. 
Obviously no single volume can provide for their determination. 
But this host of species is divided into groups of related forms, the 
families of insects, and it is with their recognition that the present 
work deals. 

Identification of the families has been effected by means of 
analytical keys, which have been arranged as dichotomies. In 
the first couplet, for example, two contrasting descriptions are 
given, one of which should agree with the insect to be determined. 
The number at the end of this description indicates the couplet 
which should then be studied, and so on until the final name is 
secured. All of the keys have been arranged in this way, as the 
writers' experience in the classroom shows that specimens can be 
most easily and rapidly classified with a key of this type, which 
also requires much less space for printing. While the dichotomies 
frequently represent the natural relationships or the lines of 
phyletic development, no attempt has been made to preserve 
natural divisions wherever the convenience and practical opera- 
tion of the keys would have been sacrificed. 

As the tabulation is designed mainly for identification, charac- 
ters not readily seen on the usual pinned laboratory specimens 
have been minimized. The nomenclature of the body-parts and 
of the wings has been adapted from that used in the bulk of the 
systematic literature upon the separate orders. Such terms un- 
fortunately do not always agree with undoubted homologies of 
these parts but are those which are encountered in the literature 
to which reference must be made for more extended taxonomic 



vi Preface. 

work. A special glossary and drawings of anatomical details will 
familiarize the student with unusual terms. The keys are intended 
only for adult insects as there is as yet no complete guide to the 
younger stages, although a few hints are given in the key to or- 
ders to indicate the position of immature forms. 

For a bibliography of the more important papers dealing with 
the further classification of North American insects, the student is 
referred to Banks, Bulletin No. 81, Bureau of Entomology, U. S. 
Department of Agriculture (1910). 

Preceding each family name are cited several representative 
genera, and, in the case of a number of economically important 
species, the common and specific names are also given, inclosed in 
brackets after the generic name. Thus the genera are in heavy- 
face type, the Latin specific names in italics, and the common 
names in Roman. A few synonyms have been inserted, in italics,, 
both for genera and for families, to associate the names here used 
with others commonly occurring in publications. The family 
names have been formed in accordance with the rule of the zoo- 
logical code requiring the suffix -idee after the root of the oldest 
genus name, although this has resulted in a number of minor 
changes in orthography. The pronunciation of the Latin names 
is indicated by an accent mark, placed over the vowel in the ac- 
cented syllable, a long vowel indicated by a grave accent (e.g. e) 
and a short one by an acute accent (e.g. 6). 

The Linnean classification of insects into seven orders has been 
long abandoned as an artificial grouping of unrelated forms. We 
have followed the unified ordinal groups essentially as limited by 
Handlirsch. 1 

The families of a few of the orders recently monographed have 
been adopted almost without change. Thus the Dermaptera are 
based on Burr, 2 the Hemiptera on Reuter, 3 the Lepidoptera to a 
great extent on Forbes, 4 the Mallophaga on Kellogg, 5 the Strepsip- 
tera on Pierce, 6 and the Trichoptera on Ulmer. 7 

' Die foesilen Inaekten und die Phylogenie der rezenten Fonnen. Leipzig, 1908. Wilhelm 
Englemann. 

Wytsman's Genera Insectorum, fasc. 122 (1913). 

Oefv. Fin. Vet. Forh., liv, (1911-12). 

Psyche, xxi, 53-65 (1914). 

'Wytsman's Genera Insectorum, fasc. 66 (1908). 

Bull. U. S..Nat. MUB., No. 66 (1909). 

7 Wytsman's Genera Insectorum, fasc. 60 (1907). 



Preface. vii 

The families of the Coleoptera are mainly those recognized by 
Sharp and Ganglbaur, and largely reverse the familiar sequence 
given by Le Conte and Horn. Two or three orders do not occur 
in North America, but have been added to the key for the sake of 
completeness. A few families absent in North America have 
representatives in Central America or the West Indies, and these 
also have been included. 

The present system of insect classification has gradually been 
evolved by many workers in almost innumerable contributions 
published during the course of more than a century. During this 
time systems have been proposed, wholly or partially discarded, 
or incorporated into new ones. The task of the writers has been 
little more than to compile from this existing literature the most 
recent ideas, and they have gleaned from so many sources in various 
languages that it is impossible to refer to all in detail. To some 
extent this is also true of the illustrations which have been verv 
largely redrawn from published figures, by Beirne Barrett Brues, 
the wife of one of the authors. The original source of the drawings 
is indicated on the explanations to the plates by the name of the 
author in parentheses, although it must be stated that many have 
been simplified, differently lettered, or otherwise modified to adapt 
them to the purpose of the present manual. 

While family groupings should be of equal rank throughout the 
animal kingdom, they are not always coordinate, since they are 
concepts rather than concrete divisions and hence are subject to 
the variability of ideas. That the specialist is apt to narrow his limi- 
tations can be seen by the constantly increasing number of families 
proposed. For example, the old group Tachinidae, geologically 
one of the most recent of insects, has been segregated into scores 
of so-called families. If this course is accepted in one group it 
carries with it a tacit elevation of all other ranking minor groupings 
and thus the family concept becomes altered. Since views on 
classification irresistibly shift through such changes and are con- 
stantly diverted by the discovery of annectant forms, no taxo- 
nomic scheme can be considered complete or final. While the 
writers have to some extent attempted to keep the family groupings 
balanced, yet they fully appreciate the futility of such an endeavor 
and present the following outline as seemingly that most widely 
accepted by present-day entomologists. 



CONSPECTUS OF THE HIGHER GROUPS OF INSECTS. 
Class PTERYGOGENEA 

Subclass Orthopteroidea 

Order GRYLLOBLATTOIDEA (Grylloblattidse) 
Order ORTHOPTERA 

Suborder Acridoidea (Acridiidae, Tettigidae) 

Suborder Locustoidea (Locustidae, Gryllidse, Gryllotalpidae, Tridactylidae) 
Order PHASMOIDEA (Phasmidae) 
Order DIPLOGLOSSATA (Hemimeridae) 

Order DERMAPTERA (Pygidicranidae, Labiduridse, Labiidae, Forficulidse) 
Order THYSANOPTERA 

Suborder Terebrantia (^Eolothripidas, Thripidae) 

Suborder Tubulifera (Phloeothripidse) 

Subclass Blattaeformia 

Order MANTOIDEA (Mantidae) 

Order BLATTOIDEA (Blattidae) 

Order ZORAPTERA (Zorotypida:) 

Order ISOPTERA (Protermitidas, Termitidae) 

Order CORRODENTIA (Psocidae, Atropidae) 

Order MALLOPHAGA 

Suborder Ischnocera (Trichodectidae, Philopteridae) 

Suborder Amblycera (Gyropodidae, Liotheidae) 
Order SIPHUNCULATA (Pediculidae, Haematopinidae, Echinophthiriidae) 

Subclass Hymenopteroidea 

Order HYMENOPTERA 

Suborder Chalastogastra (Xyelidae, Pamphiliidae, Oryssidae, Cephidae, 
Xiphydriidae, Siricidae, Cimbicidae, Hylotomidae, Diprionidae, Ten- 
thredinidae, Pterygophoridae) 
Suborder Clistogastra 
ICHNEUMONIFORMIA : 

ICHNEUMONOIDEA (Evaniidae, Roproniidae, Stephanidae, Alysiidae, 

Ichneumonidae, Capitoniidae, Braconidae, Myersiidae) 
CYNIPOIDEA (Figitidaa, Ibaliidae, Cynipida?) 

CHALCIDOIDEA (.Mymaridae, Agaonidae, Eucharidae, Perilampidae, 
Callimomidae, Leucospidae, Chalcididae, Eurytomidae, Cleonymidae, 
Miscogastridse, Pteromalidae, Eulophidae, Elasmidae, Trichogrammat- 
ida3) 

VESPIFORMIA (Trigonaloidaa, Heloridae, Diapriidae, Platygastridae, 
Scelionidae, Ceraphronidae, Formicidae, Vanhorniidae, Chrysididae, 
2 1 



Key to Families of North American Insects. 

Bethylidse, Embolemidae, Dryinidse, Serphidae, Pelecinidae, Vespidae, 
Eumenidae, Psammocharidae, Masaridse, Sapygidae, Myzinidae, 
Tiphiidae, Scoliidse, Rhopalosomatidae, Myrmosidae, Cosilidae, 
Mutillidse 

SPHECIFORMIA (Crabronida?, Oxybelidas, Trypoxylonidae, Philan- 
thidae, Bembecidae, Nitelidae, Larridae, Psenidae, Mellinidae, Ampu- 
licidae, Sphecidae, Stizidae, Nyssonidae, Alysonidae, Gorytidaa) 

ANTHOPHILA (Apidaa, Bombidse, Prosopidae, Colletida?, Andrenidae, 
Panurgidae, Anthophoridae, Nomadidae, Melectidse, Megachilidas, 
Xylocopidae, Ceratinidae) 

Subclass Coleopteroidea 

Order COLEOPTERA 

Suborder Adephaga (Cicindelidas, Carabidaa, Haliplidae, Amphizoidae, 

Dytiscidae, Gyrinidae, Rhysodidae, Cupedidae) 
Suborder Polyphaga 

PALPICORNIA (Hydrophilidae) 

STAPHYLINIFORMIA (Silphidse, Scydmamidse, Leptinidae, Clam- 

bidae, Aphenocephalidae, Orthoperidae, Ptiliidae, Sphaariidae, Hydro- 

scaphidae, Scaphidiidae, Pktypsyllidae, Staphylinidae, Pselaphidae, 

Histeridaa) 
MALACODERMATA (Lampyrida?, Lycidae, Telephoridae, Malachiidae, 

Cleridae, Corynetidae, Derodontidae) 
CUCUJOIDEA (Cucujidas) 
CLAVICORNIA (Synteliidae, Ostomatidae, Nitidulidae, Erotylida3, 

Cryptophagidae, Phalacridae, Lathridiidae, Mycetophagidae, Adi- 

meridae, Colydiidae, Cioidae, Sphindidae, Endomychidae, Coccinellidae) 
BRACHYMERA (Byturidae, Dermestidaa, Nosodendridae, Byrrhidae) 
MACRODACTYLIA (Georyssidae, Heterocerida?, Helodidss, Eucin- 

etidae, Dryopidae) 

SERRICORNIA (Chelonariidae, Dascillidae, Rhipiceridae) 
STERNOXIA (Cebrionidae, Ekteridse, Eucnemidaa, Throscida;) 
BUPRESTOIDEA (Buprestidae) 
TEREDILIA (Lymexylonidae, Micromalthidae, Bostrichidae, Lyctidae, 

Ptinidae, Anobiidae) 
HETEROMERA (CEdomeridae, Cephaloonidae, Pythidae, Pyrochroidae, 

Hylophilidae, Pedilidae, Anthicidaa, Melandryidae, Scraptidae, Mon- 

ommidae, Othniidae, ^Egialitidae, Lagriidae, Cistelidae, Tenebrionidas, 

Meloidae, Mordellidae, Rhipiphoridae) 

PHYTOPHAGA (Cerambycida?, Chrysomelidae, Bruchida 2 ) 
RHYNCHOPHORA (Platj-podidte, Ipidae, Curculionidas, Anthribidse, 

Brenthidre) 
LAMELLICORNIA (Lucanidaa, Sinodendridae, Passalida?, Trogidae, 

Scarabseidae) 
Order STREPSIPTERA (Mengeidae, Xenidae, Halictophagida?, Elenchidaa) 



Conspectus of the Higher Groups of Insects. 3 

Subclass Embidaria 

Order EMBDDINA (Olynthidre, Oligotomidae, Embiidse) 

Subclass Libelluloidea 

Order ODONATA 

Suborder Zygoptera (Calopterygidae, Agrionidae) 
Suborder Anisoptera (JSschnida?, Libellulidae) 

Subclass Ephemeroidea 

Order PLECTOPTERA (Ephemeridffi) 

Subclass Perloidea 

Order PLECOPTERA (Perlidse) 

Subclass Neuropteroidea 

Order MEGALOPTERA (Sialididse, Corydalidae) 

Order RAPHIDIOIDEA (Raphidiidse) 

Order NEUROPTERA (Mantispida?, Ascalaphidae, Myrmeleonidae, Chrysop- 

idae, Dilaridae, Polystoechotida?, Berothidae, Sysyridse, Hemerobiidas, 

Coniopterygidas) 

Subclass Panorpoidea 

Order PANORPAT^E (Panorpidae, Bittacusidae, Meropida;, Boreidae) 
Order TRICHOPTERA (Hydroptilidae, Philopotamida?, LimnephDidae, Rhy- 
acophilida?, Phryganeidae, Polycentropidae, Hydropsychidae, Psychomyiidae, 
Calamocerotida?, Sericostomatidae, Molannidae, Leptoceridae, Odonto- 
cerida3) 

Order LEPIDOPTERA 

Suborder Jugatae (Hepialidae, Micropterygidae) 
Suborder Frenatae 

TINEOIDEA: (Adelidae, Gracilariida;, Lyonetiidae, Tischeriidae, Acro- 
lepiidas, Prodoxidae, Opostegidae, Nepticulidae, Tineidae, Heliozelidae, 
Heliodinidae, Cosmopterygida?, Elachistidae, Blastobasida?, Ethmiidae, 
(Ecophoridae, Stenomidae, Gelechiidae, Yponomeutida?, Tortricidae, 
Pterophoridse, Orneodidae, Pyralididae, ^Egeriidae, Castniidae, Cossidae, 
Thyrididae, Chalcosiidae, Pyromorphidae, Dalceridae, Megalopygidae, 
Eucleidae, Psychidae, Lacosomatidae, Nolidae) 

BOMBYCOIDEA: (Uraniidae, Epiplemidae, Geometridaa, Drepanidae, 
Bombycidae, Lasiocampidae, Liparidae, Thyatiridae, Eupterotidae, 
Notodontidae, Dioptidae, Pericopidae, Noctuidae, Agaristidae, Arctiidae, 
Lithosiidae, Hypsidae, Syntomidae) 
SATURNOIDEA: (Saturniidas, Ceratocampidse) 
SPHINGOIDEA: (Sphingidaj) 

PAPILIONOIDEA: (Hesperiidae, Lycaenidae, Erycinidae, Libytheidse, 
Lymnadidae, Ithomiida?, Heliconiidae, Brassolidae, Agapetidae, Morpho- 
idae, Nymphalidae, Pieridae, Papilionidae, Parnassiidae.) 



Key to Families of North American Insects. 

Order DIPTERA 
Suborder Orthorrhapha 
NEMATOCERA 

TIPULOIDEA: (Dixidae, Tipulidse, Limnobiidse, Ptychopteridse, Psy- 
chodidae, Culicidae, Chironomidae, Sciaridae, Cecidomyiidse, Scatopsidae, 
Mycetophilidae. 
BIBIONOIDEA: (Rhyphidae, Orphnephilidae, Blepharoceridae, 

Bibionidae, Simuliidae) 
BRACHYCERA 

EREMOCILETA: (Stratiomyiidae, Pantophthalmidae, Xylophagidse, 

Ccenomyiidae, Tabanida?, Rhagionidas) 
TROMOPTERA: (Cyrtidse, Nemestrinidas, Apioceridas, There vidae, 

Bombyliidse, Scenopinidas) 
DERMATINA: (Mydaidse) 
ENERGOPODA: (AsiUdae) 
ORTHOGENYA: (Empididae, Dolicho P odida2) 
ACROPTERA: (Lonchopterid) 
HYPOCERA: (Phoridae) 
Suborder Cyclorrhapha 

ASCHIZA: (Platypezidas, Pipunculidae, Syrphidas, Conopidas,) 
SCHIZOPHORA: 
MYODARIA 

SCHIZOMETOPA: (Gastrophilidae, CEstridae, Phasiidas, Megapro- 
sopidse, Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidas, Rhinophoridae, Dexiidae 
Tachinidae, Muscidae, Anthomyiidae) 

HOLOMETOPA: (Helomyzidaa, Scatophagidas, Heteroneuridie, Phy- 
codromida, Borboridas, Sepsidae, Tanypezidaa, Micropezidae, 
Rhopalomeridae, Dryomyzidae, Tetanoceridae, Lauxaniidae, Orta- 
lididse, Lonchaeidae, Trypetidae, Ephydridae, Milichiidse, Droso- 
philidae, Chloropidae, Geomyzidae, Piophilidae, Agromyzidae, Och- 
thiphilidae, Psilidae, Diopsidae) 

PUPIPARA: (Nycteribiidae, Streblidaa, Hippoboscidae) 

Order SUCTORIA. (Pulicidae, Ctenopsyllidae, Hystrichopsyllidae, Cerato- 
psyllidse, Rhynchoprionidse) 

Subclass Rhynchota 
Order HOMOPTERA 

Suborder Auchenorrhyncha (Cicadidae, Membracidas, Cercopidae, Bytho- 
scopidae, Proconiidae, Jassidae, Typhlocybidae, Fulgoridae, Cixiidas, Ach- 
ilidae, Derbidae, Issidae, Flatidae, Delphacidae) 
Suborder Psylloidea (Psyllidae) 
Suborder Aleurodoidea (Aleurodidae) 
Suborder Aphidoidea (Aphidida?) 
Suborder Coccoidea (Coccidae) 

Order HEMIPTERA (Ochteridas, Nerthridae, Naucoridae, Belostomatidae, 
Nepidae, Notonectidae, Corixidae, Dipsocoridae, Schizopteridaa, Cimicidae, 
Miridae, Isometopidae, Anthocoridae, Gerridae, Veliidae, Hydrometridae, 



Conspectus of the Higher Groups of Insects. 5 

Polyctenidae, Aradidae, Dysodiidae, Nabidae, Henicocephalidae, Mesoveliidse, 
Acanthiidse, Macrocephalidse, Reduviidse, Emesidae, Hebridae, Pyrrhocor- 
idae, Tingitidae, Corizidse, Coreidae, Alydida?, Piesmidae, Myodochidae, Neid- 
idss, Pentatomidae, Thyreocoridae, Scutelleridse. 

Class THYSANURA 

Order LEPISMATOIDEA (Lepismatida?) 
Order MACHILOIDEA (Machilidffi) 

Class CAMPODEOIDEA 

Order RHABDURA (Projapygidae, Campodeidse) 
Order DICELLURA (Japygidse) 

Class COLLEMBOLA 

Order ARTHROPLEONA (Aphoruridae, Entomobryidse, Poduridse) 
Order SYMPHYPLEONA (Sminthuridae, Papiriidae, Neelidaa) 

Class MIRIENTOMATA 

Order PROTURA (Eosentomidse) 



KEY TO THE ORDERS OF INSECTS. 

1. Wings developed 2 

Wingless, or with vestigial wings 29 

2. The wings of the mesothorax (the fore wings) horny, leathery or parchment- 

like; prothorax large and separate from the mesothorax (except in the rare 

Strepsiptera, which have minute fore wings) 3 

The mesothoracic wings membranous 11 

3. Mesothoracic wings (called tegmina or hemelytra) containing veins, or at least 

the metathoracic wings not folded crossways when hidden under the upper 

wings 4 

Mesothoracic wings (called elytra) veinless, of uniform consistency, the meta- 
thoracic wings, when present, folded crossways as well as lengthwise when 
at rest and hidden beneath the elytra; mouth mandibulate 10 

4. Mesothoracic wings of uniform texture, usually with many veins; head verti- 

cal 5 

Mesothoracic wings leathery at the base, membranous at the tip, usually over- 
lapping the abdomen when at rest; head usually horizontal; mouth beak- 
like or awl-shaped, fitted for sucking. True Bugs. .HEMIPTERA (Page 76) 

5. Mouth with the mandibles fitted for chewing 6 

Mouth fitted for sucking, the beak arising from the back part of the head and 

projecting backward HOMOPTERA (Page 73) 

6. Hind wings not folded, similar to the fore wings; social species, living in colonies. 

Termites ISOPTERA (Page 17) 

Hind wings folding, broader than the fore wings 7 

7. Usually rather large or moderately large species; antennae lengthened and 

thread-like; prothorax large and free from the mesothorax; cerci present; 

fore wings rarely minute, usually long 8 

Very small active species; antennae short, with few joints; no cerci; fore wings 
minute; prothorax small. Rare, short-lived insects, parasites of other 
insects, usually wasps and bees. Males of STREPSIPTERA (Page 41) 

8. Hind femora not larger than the fore femora; mute species; body more or less 

flattened with the wings superposed when at rest; tergites and sternites 

subequal 9 

Hind femora almost always much larger than the fore femora, jumping species, 
if not (Gryllotalpa) the front legs broadened for burrowing; species capable 
of chirping or making a creaking noise; body more or less cylindrical, the 
wings held sloping against the sides of the body when at rest; tergites usually 
larger than the sternites. Grasshoppers, Katydids, Crickets 

ORTHOPTERA (Page 13) 

9. Body elongate; head transverse, vertical, free, not set into the very long 

prothorax; front legs spined, formed for grasping prey; deliberate movers. 

Mantis MANTODDEA (Page 16) 

Body oval, much flattened; head nearly concealed underneath the oval prono- 
tum; legs similar and fitted for rapid running, the coxa? large. Roaches 

BLATTOIDEA (Page 16) 
6 



Key to the Orders of Insects. 7 

10. Abdomen terminated by movable forceps; antennae long and slender; fore wings 

short, hind wings nearly circular, delicate, radially folded from near the 

center; elongate insects. Earwigs DERMAPTERA (Page 15) 

Abdomen not terminated by forceps; antennae of various forms but usually 
eleven-jointed; fore wings usually sheathing the abdomen; generally hard- 
bodied species. Beetles . : COLEOPTERA (Page 30) 

11. With four wings 12 

With but two wings (the mesothoracic) usually outspread when at rest 27 

12. Wings long, very narrow, the margins fringed with long hairs, almost veinless; 

tarsi one- or two-jointed, with swollen tip; mouth without biting mandibles, 
fitted for sucking; no cerci; minute species. Thrips 

THYSANOPTERA (Page 15) 

Wings broader and most often supplied with veins, if rarely somewhat linear 
the tarsi have more than two joints and the last tarsal joint is not swollen, 13 

13. Hind wings with the anal area folded in plaits, fan-like, in repose, larger than 

the fore wings; antennae prominent; veins usually numerous; larvae aquatic, 14 

Hind wings not folded, not larger than the fore wings, the anal area small and 

not separated 16 

14. Tarsi five-jointed; cerci not pronounced . . . 15 

Tarsi three- jointed; body rather flattened, with jointed cerci; wings at rest over- 
lapping the abdomen; species of moderate to large size. Stone-flies 

PLECOPTERA (Page 44) 

15. Costal area with few crossveins; wings with the surface hairy; prothorax small; 

species of small to moderate size. Caddice-flies 

TRICHOPTERA (Page 46) 

Costal area with many crossveins; prothorax rather large; species of moderate 
to large size MEGALOPTERA (Page 44) 

16. Antennae short and inconspicuous; wings netveined with numerous crossveins; 

larvae aquatic. (SUBULICC-RNIA) 17 

Antennae larger, distinct, if rarely small the crossveins are few; larvae terres- 
trial 18 

17. Hind wings much smaller than the fore wings; abdomen ending in long, thread- 

like processes; sluggish fliers. May-flies PLECTOPTERA (Page 43) 

Hind wings nearly like the fore wings; no caudal setae; vigorous, active fliers, 
often of large size. Dragon-flies, Damsel-flies ODONATA (Page 43) 

18. Head produced into a mandibulate beak; hind wings not folded; wings usually 

with color pattern, the crossveins numerous; male genitalia forming a swollen 
pincers-like termination of the abdomen. Scorpion-flies 

PANORPAT^; (Page 46) 
Head not drawn out as a beak; male abdomen not forcipate 19 

19. Mouth mandibulate 20 

Mouth haustellate, the mandibles not formed for chewing; no cerci; crossveins 

few 25 

20. Tarsi five-jointed; no cerci 21 

Tarsi two-, three- or four-jointed; veins and crossveins not numerous 23 



8 Key to Families of North American Insects. 

21. Prothorax small or only moderately long 22 

Prothorax very long and cylindrical; antennae many-jointed; crossveins nu- 
merous RAPHZDIOIDEA (Pagt 44) 

22. Wings similar, with many veins and crossveins, costal cell almost always filled 

with crossveins; prothorax more or less free. If the neuration is very rarely 
reduced (Coniopteryx) the wings are powdered. .NEUROPTERA (Page 45) 
Wings with relatively few angular cells, the costal cell without crossveins; hind 
wings smaller than the fore pair; prothorax fused with the mesothorax; 
abdomen usually constricted at the base and ending in a sting or specialized 
ovipositor. Wasps, Bees, etc HYMENOPTERA (Page 19) 

23. Prothorax well developed; wings equal in size, held superimposed on the abdo- 

men when at rest 24 

Prothorax inconspicuous; hind wings smaller than the fore wings; tarsi two- 
or three-jointed; wings at rest held roof-like against the abdomen 

CORRODENTIA (Page 17) 

24. Tarsi apparently four-jointed; social species, living in colonies 

ISOPTERA (Page 17) 
Tarsi three-jointed, the front metatarsi swollen; solitary; southern species 

EMBHDINA (Page 42) 

25. Wings not covered with scales, usually transparent, not outspread when at 

rest; prothorax large; antennae with few joints 26 

Wings and body covered with scales, the wings well developed and pictured; 
prothorax small; antennas many-jointed. Moths and Butterflies 

LEPIDOPTERA (Page 48) 

26. Beak arising from the back of the head HOMOPTERA (Page 73) 

Beak arising from the front part of the head HEMIPTERA (Page 76) 

27. Mouth not functional; abdomen furnished with a pair of caudal filaments. .28 
Mouth-parts forming a proboscis, only exceptionally vestigial; abdomen with- 
out caudal filaments; hind wings replaced by knobbed halteres. Flies, 
Mosquitoes, Midges DIPTERA (Page 61) 

28. No halteres; antennae inconspicuous; crossveins abundant. A few rare May- 

flies PLECTOPTERA (Page 43) 

Hind wings represented by minute hook-like halteres; antennas evident; cross- 
veins lacking. Males of Scale-insects HOMOPTERA (Page 73) 

29. Body more or less insect-like, i. e. with more or less distinct head, thorax and 

abdomen, and jointed legs, and capable of locomotion 30 

Without distinct body parts, or without jointed legs, or incapable of locomo- 
tion 70 

30. Terrestrial, breathing through spiracles 31 

Living in the water; usually gill-breathing, larval forms 59 

Parasites on warm-blooded animals 65 

31. Mouthparts vestigial, retracted in the head and scarcely or not at all visible; 

underside of the abdomen with styles or other appendages; very delicate 

small or minute insects 32 

Mouthparts mandibulate, formed for chewing 38 

Mouthparts haustellate, formed for sucking 55 



Key to the Orders of Insects. 9 

32. Abdomen consisting of ten or eleven segments, no ventral sucker at its base, no- 

terminal springing apparatus 33 

Abdomen consisting of six segments or less, with a forked sucker on the first 
ventral segment and usually with a springing apparatus (furcula) near the 
tip beneath. (Class COLLEMBOLA) 37 

33. Basal three segments of the abdomen with ventral styles; antennae absent; 

no cerci but a short anal tube present; head pear-shaped; prothorax short. 

(Class MIRIENT6MATA) PROTURA (Page 83) 

Ventral styles occurring to the seventh segment; antennae thread-like; cerci 
present; prothorax not short 34? 

34. Body never scaly; mouthparts concealed except for the palpi; apex of the ab- 

domen without a median process. (Class CAMPODEOIDEA) 35 

Body usually covered with minute scales; tips of the mouthparts visible; abdo- 
men with a median cerciform appendage. (Class THYSANtlRA) 36 

35. Eleventh tergite nearly or quite covered by the tenth; cerci jointed; anal 

valves very distinct RHABDURA (Page 82) 

Eleventh tergite fused with the tenth; cerci single-jointed forming strong 
forceps; anal valves not distinct DICELLURA (Page 82) 

36. Body flattened; eyes not extending over the front; maxillary palpi five- or six- 

jointed; eleventh tergite partly covered by the tenth 

LEPISMATOIDEA (Page 81) 

Body convex above; eyes large, extending over the front; maxillary palpi seven- 
jointed; eleventh tergite not covered by the tenth 

MACHILOiDEA (Page 81) 

37. Abdomen comprising six evident segments; body lengthened, subcylindrical ;. 

fourth segment of the abdomen often much lengthened 

ARTHROPLEONA (Page 82) 

Abdominal segments in part fused; body subglobular, the abdomen little longer 
than wide SYMPHYPLEONA (Page 83) 

38. Underside of abdomen entirely without legs 30 

Abdomen bearing false legs beneath which differ from those of the thorax; body 

cylindrical, the thorax and abdomen not distinctly separated; larval forms. 54 

39. Antennae long and distinct '. 40 

Antennae short, not pronounced; larval forms 52 

40. Abdomen terminated by strong movable forceps; prothorax free. Earwigs 

DERMAPTERA (Page 15) 
Abdomen not ending in forceps 41 

41. Abdomen not strongly constricted at the base, broadly joined to the thorax, 42 
Abdomen strongly constricted at the base; prothorax fused with the meso- 

thorax. Ants, etc HYMENOPTERA (Page 19} 

42. Head not prolonged into a beak 43- 

Head produced into a mandibulate beak; species found about snow. (Boreus) 

PANORPAT^I (Page 46) 



10 Key to Families of North American Insects. 

43. Very small (three millimeters) louse-like jumping species; prothorax incon- 

spicuous. Book-lice CORRODENTIA (Page 17) 

Larger, or at least not louse-like species; prothorax large 44 

44. Hind legs fitted for jumping, the femora enlarged; wing-pads of larva? when 

present in inverse position, the metathoracic overlapping the mesothoracic 

ORTHOPTERA (Page 13) 

Hind legs not enlarged for jumping; wing-pads, if present, in normal posi- 
tion 45 

45. Prothorax much longer than the mesothorax; front legs fitted for grasping 

prey MANTOIDEA (Page 16) 

Prothorax not greatly lengthened 46 

46. Cerci present; antennae usually with more than fifteen joints, often many- 

jointed 47 

No cerci; body often hard-shelled; antennas usually with eleven joints 

COLEOPTERA (Page 30) 

47. Cerci with more than three joints 48 

Cerci short, with one to three joints 49 

48. Body flattened and oval; head inflexed; prothorax oval. Roaches. 

BLATTOIDEA (Page 16) 
Body elongate; head nearly horizontal; prothorax quadrate. 

GRYLLOBLATTOIDEA (Page 13) 

49. Tarsi five-jointed; body very slender and long. Walking-sticks 

PHASMOIDEA (Page 14) 
Tarsi two- to four-jointed; body not linear 50 

50. Front tarsi not enlarged 51 

Front tarsi with the first joint swollen EMBKDINA (Page 42) 

51. Tarsi apparently four-jointed; cerci with several joints; antennae with nine to 

thirty joints ISOPTERA (Page 17) 

Tarsi two-jointed; cerci one-jointed; antennae nine-jointed; minute species 
restricted to the East Indies ZORAPTERA (Page 17) 

52. Body cylindrical, caterpillar-like PANORPATAE (Page 46) 

Body more or less depressed, not caterpillar-like 53 

53. Mandibles united with the corresponding maxillae to form sucking jaws 

Larvae of Neuroptera 
Mandibles almost always separate from the maxillae 

Larvae of Cole6ptera, Raphidioidea, Strepsiptera 

54. False legs numbering five pairs or less Larvae of Lepidoptera 

False legs numbering six to eight pairs 

Most larvae of suborder Chalastogastra, Hymenoptera 

55. Body bare or with few scattered hairs 56 

Body densely clothed with hairs or scales; proboscis if present coiled under the 

head. Moths LEPIDOPTERA (Page 48) 

56. Last tarsal joint swollen and with no claws; mouth consisting of a triangular 

unjointed beak; minute species. Thrips .... THYSANOPTERA (Page 15) 
Tarsi not bladder-like at the tip, and with distinct claws 57 



Key to the Orders of Insects. 1 1 

57. Prothorax distinct 58 

Prothorax small, hidden when viewed from above DIPTERA (Page 61) 

58. Beak arising from the front part of the head. . . .HEMIPTERA (Page 76) 
Beak arising from the back part of the head. . . .HOMOPTERA (Page 73) 

59. Mouth mandibulate 60 

Mouth haustellate, forming a strong pointed inflexed beak 

Nymphs of Hemiptera 

60. Body not encased in a shell made of sand, pebbles, leaves, etc 61 

Case-bearing forms. Periwinkles Larvae of Trichoptera 

61. Abdomen furnished with external lateral gills or respiratory processes (a few 

Coleoptera here also) 62 

Abdomen without external gills 63 

62. Abdomen terminated by two or three long feathery gill-processes 

Larvae of Plectoptera 
Abdomen with short end-processes Larvae of Megal6ptera 

63. Lower lip strong, extensile, and furnished with a pair of opposable hooks 

Larvae of Odonata 
Lower lip not capable of being thrust forward and not hooked 64 

64. The three divisions of the thorax loosely united; antennae and caudal filaments 

long and slender Larvae of Plecoptera 

Thoracic divisions not constricted; antennae and caudal filaments short 

Larvae of Coleoptera 

65. Body flattened 66 

Body strongly compressed; mouth formed as a sharp inflexed beak; jumping 

species. Fleas SUCTORIA (Page 72) 

66. Mouthparts formed for biting (chewing) 67 

Mouthparts formed for piercing and sucking 68 

67. Mouth inferior; cerci long; African species parasitic on rodents 

DIPLOGLOSSATA (Page 14) 

Mouth anterior; no cerci; generally elongate-oval insects with somewhat tri- 
angular head; parasites of birds or mammals. Biting-lice 

MALLOPHAGA (Page 18) 

68. Antennae exserted, visible, though rather short 69 

Antennae inserted in pits, not visible from above 

Pupiparous DIPTERA (Page 61) 

69. Beak unjointed; tarsi formed as a hook for grasping the hairs of the host; per- 

manent parasites. Lice SIPHUNCULATA (Page 18) 

Beak jointed; tarsi not hooked; temporary parasites 

HEMIPTERA (Page 76) 

70. Legless, grubs, maggots or borers; locomotion effected by a squirming motion. 

Larvae of some beetles, flies, moths, ants, bees and wasps. If living in the 
body of wasps or bees, with the head exposed, compare the females of 
Strepsiptera. 
Sedentary forms, incapable of locomotion 71 



12 Key to Families of North American Insects. 

71. Small degraded forms bearing little superficial resemblance to insects, with a 

long slender beak, and usually covered with a waxy scale or powder or cot- 
tony tufts; living on various plants. Scale insects 

HOMOPTERA (Page 73) 

Body quiescent, but able to bend from side to side; not capable of feeding, 
enclosed in a skin which is tightly drawn over all the members, or which 
leaves the limbs free but folded against the body; sometimes free, sometimes 
enclosed in a cocoon or in a shell formed from the dried larval skin 72 

72. The skin encasing the legs, wings, etc., holding the members tightly against the 

body; prothorax small; a proboscis showing 73 

Legs, wings, etc., more or less free from the body; biting mouthparts show- 
ing 74 

73. Proboscis long; four wing-cases; sometimes in a cocoon. .Pupse of Lepidoptera 
Proboscis short; two wing-cases Pupse of Diptera 

74. Prothorax small, fused into one piece with the mesothorax; sometimes enclosed 

in a loose cocoon Pupse of Hymenoptera 

Prothorax larger and not closely fused with the mesothorax 75 

75. Wing-cases with few or no veins Pupae of Coleoptera 

Wing-cases with a number of veins Pupae of Neuropteroid Order* 



ORDER GRYLLOBLATTOIDEA. 

Elongate, flattened, wingless insects measuring over one inch in 
length. Head nearly horizontal, free, eyes small, no ocelli, anten- 
nae long and thread-like, arising from the front of the head, mandi- 
bles strong; prothorax large, quadrate, free; legs formed for run- 
ning, similar, coxse close together, tarsi five- jointed; cerci long, 
filiform, eight-jointed, ovipositor long and sword-shaped. 
(Grylloblatta.) (PI. 2, fig. 19.) GRYLLOBLATTID^ 

ORDER ORTHOPTERA. 

(ULONATA, part; SALTATORIA.) 

Small to large, jumping species usually possessing a device on the 
wings for making a creaking sound; hind femora almost always 
very much stouter basally, or longer, or both, than the middle 
femora; wings of adults reposing over the abdomen, the fore wings 
toughened, narrower and thicker than the membranous, plaited 
hind pair; sometimes the wings vestigial or completely absent; 
head usually vertical; ovipositor almost always free; mouthparts 
conspicuous, mandibulate; metamorphosis gradual, the young 
resembling the adults, but with the small wings in a reversed 
position in the last two nymphal stages, the hind wings then 
overlapping the fore wings. 

1. Antennae almost always shorter than the body, generally thread-like and never 

distinctly tapering, joints distinct, often flattened; ocelli three; tarsi three- 
jointed, alike on all the legs; ovipositor short; auditory organs, if present, at 

the base of the abdomen 2 

Antennae generally longer than the body, filamentous, delicately tapering; 
ocelli often absent; ovipositor usually long; auditory organ usually near base 
of front tibiae 3 

2. Claws with a pad (arolium) beneath and between them; pronotum at most 

extending over only the extreme base of the abdomen (PI. 1, fig. 7); fore 
wings generally well developed. Locusts, Grasshoppers. (Melandplus 
[M. spretus, Rocky Mountain locust], Chortophaga, Hippiscus, Dissosteira 

\D. Carolina, Carolina locust].) (PL 1, fig. 8) ACRIDilD^ 

Claws without arolium; pronotum extending over the abdomen (PL 1, fig. 6); 
fore wings vestigial, consisting of small scales at the base of the usually large 
hind wings. Grouse-locusts, Pigmy locusts. (Tettix) (PL 1, figs. 10, 11.) 

TETTIGID^E 
13 



14 Key to Families of North American Insects. 

3. Tarsi four-jointed; ovipositor usually long and sword-shaped; ocelli generally 

absent; fore wings, when present, with the sides sloping. Katydids, Green 
or long-horned grasshoppers. (Scudderia, Conocephalus, Ceuth6philus 
[Cave-cricket].) (PI. 1, figs. 2, 3, 4.) (TETTIGONIDM, PHASGON- 

URIDM) LOCUSTDX& 

Tarsi three-jointed; ovipositor, when present, exserted and needle-shaped, 
sometimes upcurved or with the tip enlarged; fore wings, when present, flat 
above, and with the sides bent abruptly downward. (GRYLLODEA) . . .4 

4. Front legs more or less broadened and fitted for burrowing; females without 

ovipositor 5 

Front legs slender, fitted for walking; female with needle-shaped ovipositor, 
which may sometimes be reduced in size. Crickets. (Gryllus, CEcanthus 
[Tree crickets], Myrmecophila.) (PL 1, figs. 12, 13.) (ACHETIDJS) 

GRYLLIDJE 

5. Two large ocelli; front tibiae dilated, their outer edge strongly toothed; hind 

femora scarcely enlarged; tarsi three-jointed; over 25 mm. in length. Mole 

crickets. (Gryllotalpa.) (PI. 1, figs. 9, 14.) GRYLLOTALPKLE 

Three small ocelli; front tibiae scarcely dilated, but with three or four strong 
spines at apex; hind femora greatly enlarged; tarsi one-jointed; less than 
10 mm. in length. (Tridactylus.) (PI. 1, fig. 5.). . . .TRTOACTYLIDjE 

ORDER PHASMOIDEA. 

(GRESSORIAL 

Large, wingless, slow-moving, slender, plant-eating insects with 
long, thin legs. Body narrowly cylindrical, head rather hori- 
zontal, generally rounded, ocelli often absent; mouth rather 
anterior, mandibles strong, antennae coarse, comprising more than 
twenty joints; prothorax very short, front legs similar to the 
others, coxse small and distant, tarsi five-jointed; cerci present 
but unsegmented. Metamorphosis very slight. Walking-sticks. 
Diapheromera, Bacillus.) (PI. 1, fig. 1.) PHASMID^ 

ORDER DIPLOGLOSSATA. 

(DERMODERMAPTERA .) 

Moderate sized, flattened, wingless species parasitic on rodents. 
Head movable, rather horizontal, mouth underneath, mandibles 
strong, no eyes, antennae short; prothorax free, large; legs alike, 
tarsi three-jointed; cerci long, but unsegmented. Metamorphosis 
imperceptible. 

One family HEMIMERIDJE, restricted to South Africa. 



Dermaptera Thysanoptera. 15 

ORDER DERMAPTERA. 
(EUPLEXOPTERA; EUDERMAPTERA.) 

Elongate, but small insects with the abdomen terminating in a 
pair of strong movable forceps. Fore wings horny, but short, hind 
wings large, nearly circular, radially folded from near the center 
(PI. 1, fig. 18), when folded, projecting slightly beyond the upper 
pair; mouth mandibulate; antennae long and slender. Metamor- 
phosis incomplete. Earwigs. 

1. Metapygidium and telson not reduced, nearly as large as the pygidium which 

is relatively small; head depressed, truncate or concave posteriorly; femora 
compressed and usually keeled; tropical earwigs. (Pyragra, Pyragr6psis.) 

(PI. 1, fig. 15.) PYGEDICRANIIXflE 

Metapygidium and telson much reduced, very greatly smaller than the pygidium 
which is relatively very large and sometimes with complex processes 2 

2. Metapygidium and telson although reduced in size, still present as distinct 

plates, if sometimes lost in the pygidium, the latter is fused with the last 
dorsal segment to form a horizontal squamopygidium; femora not com- 
pressed or keeled; head gently convex. (Anisolabis, Labidura.) (PI. 

1, fig. 17.) LABIDURIDjE 

Metapygidium not distinct; pygidium well developed, often provided with com- 
plex processes 3 

3. Second joint of tarsi simple, not lobed nor dilated. (Labia, Prolabia.) 

LABUDM 

Second joint of tarsi with a dilated lobe on each side. (Forficula, D6ru.) (PI. 
1. fig. 16.) FORFICULIIX& 

ORDER THYSANOPTERA. 

(PHYSOPODA.) 

Small or minute, slender species with the wings often absent or 
reduced in size, feeding usually on plant sap. Head vertical, 
free; eyes well developed; usually three ocelli; mouthparts fitted 
for sucking, inferior, frequently asy metrical; pro thorax free; 
wings, when present, very narrow, usually with long marginal 
fringes, the venation greatly reduced; legs similar, tarsi one- or 
two-jointed, with a bladder-like or hoof -like enlargement at tip; 
no cerci. Metamorphosis gradual, the young very similar to 
the adult. 

1. Female with a saw-like ovipositor (PI. 2, fig. 31); last segment of female abdo- 
men conical, that of the male broadly rounded; wings usually present, the 
fore pair strongest, usually with more or less well developed veins and 



16 Key to Families of North American Insects. 

always at least one longitudinal vein reaching from base to apex; wing 

membrane with microscopic hairs. (Suborder TEREBRANTIA) 2 

Female without a modified ovipositor, the last segment of the abdomen tubular 
in both sexes; wings often absent, both pairs similar in structure, the 
fore wings with only a median longitudinal vein which does not reach to the 
tip of the wing; wing membrane without microscopic hairs. (Suborder 
TUBULIFERA.) (Phlceothrips, Trichothrips, Cryptothrips.) 

PHLCEOTHRIPIIXE 
2. Ovipositor curved upwards; fore wings broad, rounded and with prominent 

veins; antennae nine-jointed, (^dlothrips) JSOLOTHRIPID.&) 

Ovipositor curved downwards; wings when present usually narrow and pointed 
at tips; antennae seven- to ten-jointed. (Thrips [T. tdbaci, Onion Thrips] 
Eftthrips [E. pl/ri, Pear Thrips; E. tritid, Strawberry Thrips], Heliothrips 
[T. hcemorrhoidaUs, Greenhouse Thrips].) (PI. 2, figs. 21, 31.) 

THRIPIDJE 

ORDER MANTOIDEA. 

Large, poor-flying, deliberate-moving, predatory species with 
long, spined front legs, which are formed for grasping prey. Body 
elongate; head freely movable, not inserted in the prothorax, eyes 
prominent; three ocelli; mouth inferior, mandibles strong, antennae 
filament-like, comprising many similar joints; prothorax always 
lengthened and movable; wings dissimilar, overlapping on the 
abdomen; cerci jointed. Metamorphosis incomplete. Praying 
Mantis. 
(Stagmomantis.) (PI. 2, fig. 22.) MANTID^E 

ORDER BLATTOIDEA. 
(OOTHECARIA, CURSORIA.) 

Moderate-sized, broadly oval, flattened, quick-running insects. 
Head free but inflexed so as to be nearly or quite concealed be- 
neath the pronotum, the mouth posterior or nearly so, mandibles 
strong, usually two ocelli; antennae long, filamentous, many- 
jointed; prothorax large, movable, usually transverse; wings 
when present overlapped on the abdomen; fore wings parchment- 
like, containing many veins, hind wings radially folding; legs 
strong, alike, coxae large; cerci prominent and jointed. Metamor- 
phosis slight. Roaches. 

(Phyliodrdmia, (=Blattella) [P. germdnica, Croton bug], Periplaneta, Isch- 
noptera, Blatta.) (PL 2, figs. 23, 25.) BLATTID^E 



Zoraptera Isoptera Corrodentia. 1 7 

ORDER ZORAPTERA. 

Minute, wingless, agile, terrestrial, predatory species. Body 
flattened, head somewhat inclined, antennae moniliform, nine- 
jointed, mandibles strong, eyes vestigial; thorax as long as the ab- 
domen, pro thorax large; abdomen with ten segments, cerci one- 
jointed; legs similar, formed for running, tarsi two- jointed. 

One family, ZOROTYPID^, restricted to the East Indies. (PL 2, fig. 26.) 



ORDER ISOPTERA. 

Small to middle-sized, elongate, feeble insects living in colonies 
and occurring as sexual individuals, soldiers and workers; usually 
with weak chitinization. Head large, free, rather vertical, eyes 
and ocelli present or absent, mandibles often large, antennae 
filamentous; pro thorax large, free; legs similar, formed for run- 
ning, tarsi apparently four-jointed; wings similar, narrow and 
long, superimposed over the abdomen, soldiers and workers wing- 
less; cerci short. Metamorphosis very imperfect. White ants, 
Termites. 

Tarsi with an apical sole-like pad; eyes present, mandibles toothed; pronotum 
flat; wings reticulate; fontanel absent. (Termopsis, Calotermes.) 

PROTERMITIDjE 

Plan tula absent; mandibles not strongly toothed; pronotum convex; wings not 
strongly reticulate; vertex with fontanel. (Termes, Eutennes.) (PL 2, figs. 24, 
27, 28.) (METATERMITIDJE) TERMITIDJE 



ORDER CORRODENTIA. 

(PSOCOPTERA, COPEOGNATHA.) 

Small or minute, mandibulate insects with long slender antennae, 
the body rather stout, the prothorax small, tarsi two- or three- 
jointed. Metamorphosis incomplete. 

Wings well developed; ocelli present. Bark living insects. (Csecilius, Psdcus.) 
(PL 2, fig. 29.) PSOCIDjE 

Wings absent, or at most a single small pair of mesothoracic wings present; ocelli 
absent. (Tr6ctes, [T. divinatbria, Book-louse], Atropos, Psocinella.) (PL 
2, fig. 30.) i ATROPHY 



18 Key to Families of North American Insects. 

ORDER MALLOPHAGA. 

(LIPOPTERA.) 

Small wingless insects averaging two mm. and very rarely over 
five mm. in length. Body oval, or elongate, very strongly flattened; 
usually strongly chitinized and generally with a conspicuous color 
pattern of pale or yellowish markings contrasting with spots or 
bands of dark brown or black. Mouth anterior, mandibles 
strong, antennae three- to five-jointed; prothorax free; legs short, 
no cerci. Metamorphosis very incomplete. External parasites 
of birds, more rarely of mammals during entire life, feeding on 
feathers, fur or skin. (Bird Lice, Biting Lice.) 

1. Antennae filamentous, exposed, three- or five-jointed; maxillary palpi absent; 

mandibles vertical; meso- and metathoracic segments usually fused. 

Suborder ISCHNOCERA 2 

Antennae clavate or capitate, concealed, four-jointed; maxillary palpi four- 
jointed; mandibles horizontal; meso- and metathoracic segments with a 
sutural line usually visible. Suborder AMBLYCERA 3 

2. Antennae three-jointed; tarsi with a single claw; infesting mammals. (Trichodectes 

[T. latus, Dog Louse].) TRICHODECTIIXE 

Antennas five-jointed; tarsi with two claws; infesting birds. (Docophorus, 
Nirmus, Lipeurus.) (PL 2, figs. 34, 35.) PHILOPTERIDjE 

3. Tarsi with a single claw; infesting mammals. (Gyropus.) . . . GYROPODHLE 
Tarsi with two claws; infesting birds (except in a few cases). (Menopon, 

Trindton.) LIOTHEID^ 

ORDER SIPHUNCULATA. 

(ANOPLURA, PSEUDORHYNCHOTA, PARASITA, PHTHIRAPTERA, 
ELLIPOPTERA.) 

Small, more or less flattened, wingless parasites of mammals. 
Head free, horizontal; eyes reduced or absent; mouth anterior, 
comprising an unjoin ted, fleshy beak; antennae short; thorax 
fused; legs similar; tarsi single-jointed, forming a claw at the end 
of the tibia; no cerci; metamorphosis very slight. True lice. 

1. Body flattened; spiracles only at each side of the mesothorax and on abdominal 
segments three to eight; antennae three- or five-jointed; tibia with a thorn- 
shaped projection 2 

Body thick and stout; mesothorax and metathorax each with a pair of spiracles 
as well as abdominal segments two to eight; eyes absent; tibia with a stout, 
short, thorn-like projection; antennae four- or five-jointed; entire body sup- 
plied with thorn-like bristles. (Echinophthirius.) . . ECHINOPHTHIRinXffi 



Hymenoptera. 19 

2. Eyes large, convex, distinctly pigmented; fulturae very strong and broad arms; 
proboscis short, hardly reaching the thorax. (Phthirius [P. ingvinalis, 
Crab-louse] Pediculus [P. cdpitis, Head-louse; P. vestimenti, Body-louse]), 
(PL 2, figs. 32, 33) .................................... PEDICULID^ 

Eyes very indistinct or wanting; fulturae very narrow and closely applied to the 
pharynx; beak very long. (Haematopinus [H. iirius, Hog-louse].) 



ORDER HYMENOPTERA. 

(PHLEBOPTERA.) 

Moderate sized, small or minute, rarely very large; four mem- 
branous wings, the fore pair larger and more completely veined; 
venation rather complete but not complex, sometimes greatly re- 
duced; mouth-parts mandibulate, but the maxillae usually adapted 
for lapping liquid food; antennae variable; ocelli present; pro- 
thorax not free; legs similar; tarsi usually five-jointed; abdomen 
usually with six or seven visible segments; no cerci; ovipositor of 
female usually sting-like, sometimes saw-like, occasionally greatly 
elongate. Metamorphosis complete; larvae legless in the higher 
forms. Habits variable, phytophagous, predatory, or parasitic. 
Saw-flies, Wood-wasps, Ichneumon-flies, Ants, Wasps and Bees. 

1. Abdomen broadly sessile, attached over a large area (PL 4, fig. 83); larvae with 

legs present, usually well developed; trochanters two-jointed (PL 4, fig. 63); 
hind wing with three basal cells. Suborder CHALASTOGASTRA 
(=SYMPHYTA, SESSILIVENTRES, PHYTOPHAGA, TERE- 
BRANTIA) ..................... ............................ * ..... 2 

Abdomen petiolate or subpetiolate, never broadly sessile (PL 4, figs. 76, 77); 
larvae legless; trochanters one- or two-jointed; hind wing with less than 
three basal cells. Suborder CLISTOGASTRA (= AP6CRITA) ....... 12 

2. Fore wings with three radial cells, i. e. two radial cross veins present; antennae 

many jointed, but with the three basal joints strongly developed, the third 
very long. (Macroxyela, Xyela, Odontophyes) (PL 3, fig. 36) 



Fore wings with only one or two radial cells, only one or no radial crossvein 
present .......................................................... 3 

3. Costal cell divided by a distinct longitudinal vein (the subcosta); antennae slen- 

der, becoming very thin apically, many- jointed; radial cell with one cross- 
vein. (Pamphflius) (= Lyda), Neurotoma, Bactr6cerus (LYDIDJE) 

PAMPHILilIXE 
Costal cell not divided ................................................. 4 

4. Anterior tibiae with a single apical spur ................................... 5 

Anterior tibiae with two apical spurs. Saw-flies. (TENTHREDINOIDEA.) . 8 



20 Key to Families of North American Insects. 

5. Fore wings with only two cubital cells; antennae inserted much below the lower 

margin of the eyes, beneath a frontal ridge; vertex tuberculate. (Oryssus) 

ORYSSIDJE 
Fore wings with three or four cubital cells 6 

6. Pronotum nearly truncate or weakly emarginate behind; mesonotum short? 

not extending much beyond the anterior margin of the tegulae; abdomen 
more or less compressed; antennas filiform, many-jointed. (Cephus [C. 

pygmcnts, Wheat-stem Saw-fly], Janus.) CEPHID^ 

Pronotum deeply curved or emarginate behind; mesonotum longer, extending 
well beyond the anterior margin of the tegulae 7 

7. Parapsidal furrows present; fore wings with a transverse intercostal vein; no 

triangular plate at the apex of the abdomen; prothorax conical. (Xiphydria.) 

XIPHYDRinXE 

Parapsidal furrows absent; fore wings without an intercostal vein; apex of 
abdomen with a triangularly shaped plate; prothorax subquadrate. (Tre- 
mex, Sirex, Paurfcrus) (PI. 3, fig. 39) (UROCERIDft) SIRICnXE 

8. First parapterum (a small, more or less triangular plate just behind the pro' 

thoracic spiracle and above the mesopleura) present 9 

First parapterum absent; mesosternum not separated from the mesopleura by 
an impressed line (Acordulecera) PTERYGOPHORID.flJ 

9. Abdomen angled laterally so that the dorsal sclerites are sharply divided into 

a dorsal and ventral surface; antennae clubbed. (Cimbex \C. americana, 

Willow Saw-fly], Trichiosdma, Zaraea) CIMBICIIXE 

Abdomen not sharply angled laterally; antennae not clubbed 10 

10. Mesopleura separated from the mesosternum by an impressed line; antennae 

three- jointed, the third joint very long (Hylotoma(= Arge), Sterictiphora) 

HYLOTOMHXE 

Mesopleura not separated by an impressed line; antennae with more than six 
joints 11 

11. Antennae serrate (female) or pectinate (male), eighteen- to twenty-six-jointed. 

(Diprion (= Lophyrus) [Pine Saw-flies] DIPRIONHXE; 

Antennae filamentous, with seven to twelve, usually nine, joints. (Dolerus, 
Nematus, Macrophya, Tenthredella) (PI. 3, fig. 37). .TENTHREDINID^; 

12. Hypopygidium divided, or never closely united with the pygidium, the ovi- 

positor issuing some distance before the tip of the abdomen, from its ventral 

surface (PI. 4, fig. 79) 13 

Hypopygium entire and closely united with the pygidium, the sting or qvi- 
positor always issuing from the tip of the abdomen (PI. 4, fig. 82) 44 

13. Winged 14 

Wingless 25 

14. Fore wings with a stigma which is rarely very slender or linear; costal vein 

well developed as far as the stigma (PI. 3, figs. 42, 43); abdomen usually 
with the ventral segments membranous and with a median fold; antennae 
usually with more than sixteen joints; wing venation ordinarily well de- 
veloped. (ICHNEUMON01DEA.) 15 



Hymenoptera. 21 

Fore wings without a stigma, the marginal vein if present, linear, not stigmated; 
costal vein entirely absent or much thinner than the subcostal (PI. 3, figs. 
44, 46); abdomen with the ventral segments hard and chitinous, without 
a median fold; antennae with not more than sixteen joints (in our genera); 
wings with very incomplete venation 22 

15. Costal and subcostal veins separated, enclosing a narrow costal cell (PI. 3, fig. 

38) 16 

Costal and subcostal veins confluent, no costal cell (PI. 3, fig. 42) 18 

16. Abdomen inserted on the thorax far above the hind coxae; antennae with thir- 

teen or fourteen joints. (Foenus, Evania, Pristaulacus) (PI. 3, figs. 38, 43). 

EVANIIIXE 
Abdomen inserted normally, low down and quite close to the hind coxae. . .17 

17. Antennae fourteen-jointed; body of the abdomen beyond the petiole compressed, 

ovate or rounded; ovipositor short. (Roprfinia.) ROPRONIID^ 

Antennae very slender, with thirty joints or more; abdomen elongate; ovipositor 
long. (Stephanus.) STEPHANIES 

18. Mandibles abnormal, their attachment reversed so that the cutting edges face 

outward, laterally instead of inward, and so do not meet when the jaws are 

closed. (Dacnfisa, Aphaereta, Alysia.) ALYSITO^ 

Mandibles normal, their tips meeting when closed 19 

19. Ventral abdominal segments soft and membranous, with a median fold 20 

Ventral abdominal segments hard, chitinous, without a median fold; second and 

third segments covering most of the abdomen. (Myersia, Thaumatotypidea.) 

MYERSIKLE 

20. Front wings with two recurrent nervures (except in the rare genus Pharsalia); 

none of the dorsal abdominal segments fused together, all freely movable. 
(Ichneumon, Cryptus, Limnerium, Ophion, Tryphon, Pimpla) (PI. 3, fig. 42; 

PI. 4, fig. 63; PI. 5, fig. 85) ICHNEUMONUX 

Front wings with only one recurrent nervure (PI. 3, fig. 40); second and third 
segments of abdomen usually immovably united 21 

21. Abdomen inserted on the thorax high above the hind coxae; rare insects. (Cap- 

itdnius (= Cenoccelius).) CAPITONmXE 

Abdomen inserted close to the hind coxae; a very extensive group. (Lysiphlebus, 
Meteorus, Chelonus, Microgaster, Bracon, Rhogas) (PI. 3, fig. 40; PI. 4, 
fig. 76) BRACONIDJE 

22. Sides of the pronotum extending back to the tegulae; antennae not elbowed. 

Gall Flies. (CYNIPOIDEA.) 23 

Pronotum not extending back to the tegulae (PI. 4, fig. 73); antennae more or 
less distinctly elbowed. Chalcis Flies (CHALCIDOIDEA.) 30 

23. Dorsal abdominal plates meeting along the venter, and entirely enclosing all 

the ventral plates, except sometimes a part of the hypopygium. (Euc6ila, 

A116tria.) FIGITID^E 

Dorsal abdominal plates usually extending well down on the sides of the abdo- 
men, but not meeting along the venter; all or nearly all of the ventral plates 
visible... ...24 



22 Key to Families of North A merican Insects. 

24. Basal joint of hind tarsi twice as long as the others united, the second with a 

long, spined process externally; abdomen greatly compressed, curved like a 
pruning knife, much longer then the remainder of the body. (Ibalia.) 

IBALIID^E 

Basal joint of hind tarsi much shorter; second joint simple. (Andricus, Hol- 
caspis, Neur6terus, Synergus) (PL 3, fig. 46) CYNIPID^E 

25. Antennae distinctly elbowed (PL 4, figs. 69, 70, 71). A few genera distributed 

among the families of Chalcidoidea. (See couplet 30.) 
Antennae not elbowed (PL 5, fig. 85) 26 

26. Mandibles in a reversed position, the tips extending laterally and not meeting 

when closed (see couplet 18.) A few ALYSIID^E 

Mandibles attached normally 27 

27. Abdominal petiole expanded apically, not cylindrical (PL 5, fig. 85.) 28 

Abdominal petiole cylindrical (see couplet 22.) A few CYNIPOIDEA 

28. Ventral abdominal segments soft, with a median fold 29 

Ventral segments hard, without a fold. (See No. 19.) . . . .MYERSfflXE, part 

29. All dorsal abdominal segments free. (See couplet 20.) 

A few ICHNEUMONID^E 

Second and third dorsal segments usually immovably grown together. (See 
couplet 21.) A few BRACONID^ 

30. Hind wings exceedingly narrow, linear, the base forming a long stalk; oviposi- 

tor issuing barely before the tip of the abdomen; antennae with the scape 
not elongated, compressed, and without ring joint; very minute species 

with long wing-fringe. (Polynema, Gonat6cerus.) MYMARID^E 

Hind wings never very narrow, not linear or pedunculate at the base; ovipositor 
issuing decidedly before the tip of the abdomen; antennae elbowed (PL 4, 
figs. 69, 70, 71), with long scape and usually with from one to three ring 
joints 31 

31. Tarsi five-jointed (rarely four-jointed or less in certain wingless males); axillae 

with their anterior margin usually straight and not produced anterior to the 

tegulae (PL 4, fig. 68); spur of front tibia strong 32 

Tarsi three- or four-jointed (five-jointed or heteromerous only in the females of 
one or two genera) ; axillae produced forward, their front margin opposite or 
anterior to the tegulae (PL 4, fig. 73); spur of front tibia usually weak. . . .42 

32. Head of female long, oblong, with a deep longitudinal groove above; front and 

hind legs very stout, middle ones very slender or aborted; males wingless 
with short three- to nine-jointed antennae. Fig insects, mainly tropical. 

(Blastophaga, Eiseniella.) AGAONID.<E 

Of a different conformation 33 

33. Mesopleura with an oblique femoral groove or impression; spur of middle tibia 

not enlarged 34 

Mesopleura entire, always without femoral groove in the female and usually in 
the male; spur of middle tibia usually very large and stout. (Eupelmus, 
Anastatus, Encyrtus, Ageniaspis) (including EUPELMIDJE). 

ENCYRTDXaE 



Hymenoptera. 23 

34. Hind tibiae with two apical spurs 35 

Hind tibiae with a single spur; ovipositor rarely long; mandibles usually stout, 

with three or four teeth at the apex; small black, bronzed or metallic species. 
(Pteromalus, Dibrachys, Spalangia, DiglSchis) (PL 4, fig. 68). 

PTEROMALID^; 

35. Mandibles sickle-shaped, usually with one or two teeth within; thorax greatly 

elevated, scutellum usually much enlarged and produced behind; second 
abdominal segment very large, generally covering the rest of the abdomen. 

(Kapala, Orasema.) EUCHARIIXE 

Mandibles strong, generally with three or four teeth at apex; thorax not or very 
slightly elevated; axillae separated from the mesonotum 36 

36. Hind coxse very large, long; five or six times larger than the front ones 37 

Hind coxse never (in our genera) very large; not conspicuously larger than the 

front ones 39 

37. Hind coxae more or less triangular in section, sharply ridged above; ovipositor 

generally long; hind femora usually simple, rarely swollen and with a tooth 
beneath; if denticulate beneath, the ovipositor is long. (Callimome (= Tory- 
mus), Diamorus, Monodontomerus, Podagrion, Ormyrus) (TORY MID &). 

CALLIMOMIIXE 

Hind coxae long, more or less cylindrical, hind femora greatly swollen and 
toothed or denticulate beneath, their tibiae curved, and oblique at apex . . 38 

38. Fore wings folded longitudinally in repose; ovipositor long, curving upwards 

and backwards over the dorsum of the abdomen (Leucospis). 

LEUCOSPIDjE 

Fore wings not folded; ovipositor only very rarely long, then not thus upcurved; 
tip of abdomen often drawn out as a slender, stiff process. (Chalcis, Phas- 
gon6phora, Spilochalcis, Smicra.) CHALCiDnXE 

39. Pronotum wide, not, or scarcely narrower than the mesonotum, quadrate. . .40 
Pronotum narrower, usually narrowed in front, or transverse-linear, rarely as 

wide as the mesonotum 41 

40. Abdomen rounded or ovate, more or less compressed, the hypopygium usually 

produced in the female; second dorsal segment never very large; black or 
yellowish species. (Isosdma [Joint worms], Eurytoma, Decatoma) (PL 4, 

fig. 72) EURYTOMIIXE 

Abdomen subtriangular, small; thorax very large; metallic or submetallic 
species; second and third dorsal segments occupying most of the surface of 
the abdomen. (Perilampus.) PERILAMPID^; 

41. Mesepisternum not large and triangular; none of the femora noticeably swollen; 

small bronzed or green species. (EunStus, Semiotellus, Tridymus.) 

MISCOGASTKOXE 

Mesepisternum large and triangular; either the front or hind femora more or 
less swollen and sometimes serrate; more or less metallic species (Cheiro- 
pachys, Cleonymus, PtinSbius) CLEONYMIIXE 

42. Hind coxae normal; mesopleura impressed 43 

Hind coxae much enlarged and dilated (PL 4, fig. 64), their femora compressed; 

marginal vein greatly elongated; very small, usually blackspecies. (Elasmus.) 

ELASMIIXE 



24 Key to Families of North American Insects. 

43. Tarsi four-jointed (five-jointed or heteromerous in the females of one or two 

genera); pubescence of wings not placed in rows or lines; wings not usually 
broad (PL 4, fig. 80). (Tetrastichus, Aphelinus, Melittdbia, Sympiesis.) 

EULOPHIDjE 

Tarsi three-jointed; wings broad, with the pubescence usually arranged hi bands 
or lines; marginal and stigmal veins united to form a strongly recurved stem. 
(Pentarthron (= Trichogrdmma) TRICHOGRAMMATIIXE 

44. Pronotum extending back to the tegulse, or the latter absent; trochanters some- 

times two-jointed 45 

Pronotum shortened, more or less collar-shaped (PL 4, fig. 75), not extending 
back on the sides to the tegulse; trochanters one- join ted 76 

45. Trochanters two-jointed, the second joint sometimes difficult to detect in the 

smaller forms as it is sometimes closely attached to the femur 46 

Trochanters consisting of a single joint 52 

46. Mandibles with four teeth; hind wing with two large closed cells; moderate- 

sized, often brightly colored species. (Lycogaster.) TRIGONALOID^ 

Mandibles with not more than three teeth; hind wing usually without a closed 
cell, rarely with one; small or minute, generally black species 47 

47. Antennae inserted far above the clypeus, near the middle of the face, often on a 

frontal prominence 48 

Antennae inserted low down on the face, close to the upper margin of the 
clypeus (PL 5, fig. 86) 50 

48. Winged 49 

Wingless (See couplet 49) A few DIAPRIIDjE 

49. Marginal vein in fore wings linear, not triangularly thickened; mandibles 

with teeth at tip. Wings with or without a basal cell; radial cell in fore 
wing sometimes present; antennae usually inserted on a frontal prominence. 
(Paramesius, Tropiddpria, TrichSpria, Belyta, Pantoclis) (including BELY- 

T1DM} DIAPRIIIXE 

Marginal vein in fore wings thickened and forming a well developed stigma; 
mandibles toothed, tip of abdomen simple, fore wings with a closed dis- 
coidal cell. (Heldrus.) HELORIIXE 

50. Abdomen acute or sharply marginal along the sides 51 

Abdomen rounded on the sides; wings, when present, with the radial vein de- 
veloped, but not complete, leaving the radial cell open; no postmarginal 
vein. (Ceraphron, Megaspilus) (PL 5, fig. 85) CERAPHRONID^E 

51. Antennae ten- jointed, rarely with fewer joints, but never more; front wings 

without marginal or stigmal veins and usually without a subcostal vein also. 

(Polygndtus, Isocybus, Platygaster.) PLATYGASTRID^E 

Antennae twelve- or eleven-jointed (if rarely seven- or eight-jointed the club 
is unjointed, or if ten-jointed the stigmal vein is present) ; marginal and stig- 
mal vein usually present. (Telenomus, Teleas, Caloteleia, Scelio.) 

SCELIONIIXE 

52. First segment of abdomen forming a scale or node (PL 4, fig. 65 (1); fig. 67 

(1,2)); second segment often also nodiform, the highly mobile pedicel 



Hymenoplera. 25 

strongly differentiated from the remainder of the abdomen; tegulse ab- 
sent or much reduced; workers wingless. Ants (Formica, Campondtus, 
Lasius, Myrmica, Crematogaster, Ponera) (PI. 4, figs. 65, 67). (Including 
PONERID^E, DOLICHODERID^E, MYRMICID^) . . . .FORMICDXE 
First segment of abdomen not scale-like or nodiform, although sometimes, 
constricted at apex 53 

53. Winged 54 

Wingless, or with the wings reduced in size 72 

54. Hind wings without distinct venation, with no closed cells (PI. 3, fig. 47) . . .55- 
Hind wings with well developed venation, with two basal cells and usually with 

the radius and cubitus extending beyond these (PI. 3, fig. 53) 61 

55. Mandibles in a reversed position, the apices directed laterally away from the 

mouth opening; abdomen with only two (female) or three (male) visible 
dorsal segments, the first covering most of the abdomen (PI. 5, fig. 84). (Van- 

h6rnia.) VANHORNmXE 

Mandibles in the normal position, their tips meeting when closed 56 

56. Hind wings with a lobe at the anal angle, separated by a deep slit-shaped 

notch 57 

Hind wings oval, without a deeply separated angle, although sometimes broadly 
notched on the hind border 60 

57. Abdomen with three or four, rarely five, dorsal segments; metathorax laterally 

with sharp keels or teeth; ovipositor tubular, extensile, several- jointed; 
body usually with coarse sculpture and of metallic color. (Chrysis, Hedy- 

chrum, Hedychridium, ParnSpes) (PI. 3, fig. 47.) CHRYSIDUXE 

Abdomen with at least six dorsal segments; ovipositor sting-like; not bril- 
liantly metallic species 58 

58. Head oblong, rather flat above; antennae inserted at the clypeus, twelve- to 

thirteen-jointed (twenty-three-jointed in one rare genus); small, usually 

black or bronzed species, often wingless in the female; abdomen more or less 

elongate. (Epyris, Pseudisobrachium, Neoscleroderma) . . . .BETHYLID^ 

Head not oblong 5& 

59. Head globose or rounded; antennae thirteen-jointed in the female, ten-jointed 

in the male; front tarsi of female simple. (Ampulicimorpha.) 

EMBOLEMIDJE 

Head transverse or subquadrate; antennae ten- jointed; front tarsi of female 
usually pincers-shaped (PI. 5, fig. 92). (Dryinus, Gonatopus, Anteon, Boc- 
chus) DRYINIIX& 

60. Fore wings with a broad stigma and a closed, usually very short, radial cell; 

abdomen with a short, cylindrical petiole, the second segment much longer 
and larger then the others; small species (PI. 5, fig. 88). (Serphus (= Proc- 

totrypes)) (PROCTOTRYPIDffi) SERPHnX 

Stigma very long and narrow; radial cell large, widely open apically; abdomen 
very long and slender, and composed of equal cylindrical segments (female) 
or clubbed, with the slender first segment as long as the rest of the abdomen 
(male) (PI. 3, fig. 41). (Pelecinus.) PELECINID^E 



26 Key to Families of North American Insects. 

61. Wings folded once longitudinally when at rest; first discoidal cell in fore wings 

extraordinarily lengthened, much longer than the submedian; antennae 

distinctly elbowed 62 

Wings not folded when at rest 63 

62. Tarsal claws simple; mandibles not grooved on outer side; social species, con- 

structing paper-like nests (PI. 3, fig. 53). (Polistes [Paper- wasps], Vespa 

[Hornets and Yellow-jackets]) VESPER 

Tarsal claws with one or more teeth beneath; mandibles with grooves exter- 
nally; solitary species (PI. 3, fig. 59). (Odynerus, Eumenes [Potter- wasps].) 

EUMENUXE 
1$3. Second ventral segment not separated from the first by a strong constriction 

or transverse furrow 64 

Abdomen with the second ventral segment separated from the first by a strong 
constriction or transverse furrow; legs very often formed for digging. . . .66 

64. Legs, especially the hind pair very much lengthened, the hind femora attaining 

the apex of the abdomen or extending beyond, tibiae and tarsi nearly always 
spiny or serrate; middle tibiae with two spurs. (Pseudagenia, Psamm6ch- 
ares (= Pompilus), Pepsis, Ceropales.) 

(CEROPALID&, POMPlLIDfi) PSAMMOCHARID^E 

Legs much shorter, the tips of the hind femora reaching not or only slightly 

beyond the middle of the abdomen; tibiae and tarsi smooth 65 

65. Metanotum posteriorly concave; antennae enkrged at the tip or clubbed, the 

club joints more or less fused. (Masaris, Pseudomasaris, Euparagia.) 

MASARIDJE 

Metanotum truncate or rounded behind; antennae not thickened apically, 
none of the joints fused. (Sapyga, Eusapyga.) SAPYGID^ 

66. Middle coxae separated (usually widely so) by a bilobed or triangular prolonga- 

tion of the mesosternum 67 

Middle coxae contiguous, not separated by the mesosternum 69 

67. Tarsal claws cleft; male hypopygium ending in an upturned spine 68 

Tarsal claws simple; eyes emarginate within; hypopygium of male ending in 

three spines; usually large, brightly colored wasps (Scdlia, Elis.) SCOLED-Si: 

68. Male with the pygidium deeply emarginate at apex, the eyes emarginate within> 

the stigma narrow; female with the radial cell in the fore wing closed and 
often separated from the costa (PI. 3, figs. 48, 49). (Myzine.) MYZINID^E 
Male with the pygidium entire, the stigma broad; female with the radial cell 
in the fore wing usually open and the first discoidal cell not elongated; eyes 
entire in both sexes. (Tiphia, Paratiphia.) TIPHIID^; 

69. Hind wings with an anal lobe, separated by a deep linear notch 70 

Hind wings without an anal lobe, at most obtusely emarginate on the posterior 

basal margin 71 

70. Fore wings with the radial and the first and second discoidal cells very long, 

each fully four times as long as high; abdomen with a long, claviform petiole; 

rare West Indian insects. (Rhopalosdma.) RHOPALOSOMATID^; 

Fore wings of a different conformation; abdomen either petiolate or sessile. 
(Myrmdsa, Chyphotes.) Males of the MYRMOSHXE 



Hymenoptera. 2*7 

71. Cubitus in hind wing originating at or beyond the transverse median nervure; 

our species small, with shining body. (Sierolomorpha.) COSILID^ 

Cubitus in hind wing arising far before the transverse median nervure; body 
almost always conspicuously pilose (PL 3, fig. 45). (Mutflla, Sphseroph- 
thalma, Ephfita, Pseudomethdca) Males of the MUTILLID^; 

72. Thorax undivided, the pro-, meso- and metathorax consolidated into a single 

piece, without visible sutures between them. (See couplet 71.) 

Females of the MUTILLDXflE 
Thorax with at least one complete transverse suture 73 

73. Thorax divided into two parts. (See couplet 70.) 

Females of the MYRMOSDXE 
Thorax divided into three parts 74 

74. Head long, usually distinctly longer than broad, flattened above, the front 

horizontal; legs stout. (See couplet 58.) . . Some females of the BETHYLID^ 
Head transverse, subquadrate or rounded 75 

75. Antennae twelve-jointed; anterior tarsi not pincers-shaped (Methdca) 

THYNNIDJE 
Antennae ten-jointed; front tarsi usually pincers-shaped (PL 5, fig. 92). (Gon- 

atopus.) (See couplet 59.) DRYINUXE, part 

Antennae thirteen-jointed; wings present as small pads (See No. 71.) 

A few male MUTILLnXE 

76. Hind tarsi slender, filiform, the first joint not broadened or thickened; hairs on 

body simple. Wasps 77 

Hind tarsi with the first joint thickened or flattened, often densely hairy; hairs 
of body feathery or branched. Bees 93 

77. Middle tibiae with a single apical spur, or rarely with none 78 

Middle tibiae with two spurs 86 

78. Fore wings with only one cubital cell which is sometimes fused with the first 

discoidal (PL 3, fig. 58) 79 

Fore wings with two or three cubital cells (PL 3, fig. 52) 81 

79. Eyes not emarginate 80 

Eyes deeply emarginate within, a second cubital cell indistinctly defined. (See 

couplet 82.) TRYPOXYLONID^; 

80. First cubital cell separated from the first discoidal; scutellum and postscutel- 

lum simple, without spines or scales, eyes divergent above. (Crabro, Ana- 

crabro.) CRABRONID^; 

First cubital and first discoidal cells confluent; scutellum with a marginal lam- 
ella on each side; postscutellum with a spine or forked process; eyes con- 
vergent above. (Oxybelus, Notoglossa.) OXYBELED^ 

81. Abdomen strongly constricted between the first and second segments 82 

Abdomen without a strong constriction between the first and second seg- 
ments 83 

82. Fore wings with two cubital cells; the second usually weakly defined, some- 

times not indicated; abdomen petiolate, long, slender, and enlarged apically; 
eyes deeply emarginate within. (Tryp6xylon.) TRYPOXYLONID^E 



28 Key to Families of North American Insects. 

Fore wings with three cubital cells; second often petiolate; abdomen sessile or 

subsessile, usually constricted between the segments; eyes rarely emargin- 

ate (PI. 3, fig. 54). (PhMnthus, Cerceris, Eucerceris.) . . PHILANTHIIXS 

83. Abdomen sessile .................................................... 84 

Abdomen petiolate or subpetiolate; two or three cubital cells, transverse median 
nervure not S-shaped, hind wing usually twice emarginate on the basal half 
of the posterior border; usually rather small black species. (Psen, Cemfinus, 
Stigmus, Passaloecus.) (Including MIMESID.E and PEMPHREDOXID^E.) 



84. Labrum large, free, triangularly elongated beyond the clypeus, much longer 

than wide; radial cell not di vided near the apex; ocelli more or less aborted 
(PI. 3, fig. 52). (Bembex, Monedula, Microbembex.) ....... BEMBECIIXE 

Labrum small, usually entirely concealed by the clypeus; radial cell usually 
divided by a crossvein near apex, the portion beyond the crossvein less 
clearly defined; at least the front ocellus perfectly formed ............. 85 

85. Second cubital cell petiolate, very rarely absent; third either present or absent; 

three perfectly formed ocelli; small species. (Miscophus, Plenoculus.) 

NITELID^E 

Second cubital cell present not petiolate; hind ocelli frequently aborted (PI. 
3, fig. 51; PI. 5, figs. 87, 89). (Astata, Lyroda, Tachysphex, Tachytes.) 



86. Abdomen with a more or less distinct constriction between the first and second 

segments, the first segment broader at tip than at base; middle coxae in 
contact; second cubital cell not receiving a recurrent nervure; rare species. 
(Mellinus.) ............................................ MELLINnXE 

Abdomen not constricted between the first and second segments; middle coxae 
separated by the sternum (some metallic green Chrysididae (see couplet 57) 
may lead out here; they have the abdomen sessile, with less than six dorsal 
segments, and the pronotum though long does not quite reach the tegulse) . 87 

87. Mesosternum produced into a forked process posteriorly, the mesepisternum 

not separated; parapsidal furrows distinct; pronotum conically produced 
in front. (Rhin6psis.) ................................. AMPULICID^ 

Mesosternum not produced backwards, the mesepisternum separated; parap- 
sidal furrows indistinct or absent; pronotum not conically produced ..... 88 

88. Abdomen with a distinct slender, nearly cylindrical petiole (PI. 3, fig. 57; PI. 

4, figs. 75, 77). (Chalybion, Sceliphron (=Pelopceus) Sphex (= Amm6phila) . 
Chlorton (= Sphex, Priondnyx, Isod6ntid) .................. SPHECDX& 

Abdomen sessile or subsessile, never with a slender petiole ................ 89 

89. Labrum free, well developed, triangular or semicircular, wider than long. 

(Stizus, Sphecius.) ........................................ STIZID^E 

Labrum short, not or scarcely exserted beyond the clypeus ................ 90 

90. Marginal cell broadly truncate at apex and prolonged as a small, weakly defined 

cell; antennae inserted close to the clypeus or very close to the clypeal suture. 
(Astata, Diploplectron) ........ Subfamily ASTATINE of the NYSSONTD-flS 

Marginal cell pointed at apex, not appendiculate; antennae inserted far above 
the clypeus, always away from the clypeal suture .................... 91 



Hymenoptera. 29 

91. Fore wings with the second cubital cell petiolate, rarely triangular; meso- 

pleural furrow wanting or indicated only anteriorly .................... 92 

Fore wings with the second cubital cell broadly sessile, not triangular, receiv- 
ing both recurrent nervures; mesopleural furrow complete, usually deep 
(PI. 3, fig. 56). (Pseudoplisus, Gorytes, Hoplisddes.) ...... GORYTIDjE 

92. Metathorax with the upper hind angles acute or produced as stout spines ; pro- 

notum short medially, strongly transverse; short, stout species. (Nysson, 
Brachystegus) ......................................... NYSSONDXE 

Metathorax with the hind angles rounded or obtuse; pronotum subquadrate; 
slender species. (Alyson, Didineis) ...................... ALYSONID^E 

93. Hind tibiae without apical spurs; eyes hairy; marginal cell very long. (PL 4, 

fig. 81; PL 5, fig. 91.) (Apis [A. mellifera, Honey-bee]) ........... APEX 

Hind tibiae with apical spurs .......................................... 94 

94. The cheeks separating the eyes from the mandibles longer than the pedicel of 

the antennae; social bees; large, densely hairy species with contrasting black 
and yellow or sometimes also orange pile. Bumble-bees. (B6mbus,Psithyrus) 



Eyes nearly or quite reaching to the base of the mandibles; solitary bees of 
different appearance .............................................. 95 

95. Tongue short, broad, obtuse and emarginate at apex (COLLETIFORMES) . . 96 
Tongue more or less elongate, pointed and not emarginate; no ventral abdom- 

inal brush of hairs. (ANDRENIFORMES) .......................... 97 

Tongue long and very slender. (PL 5, fig. 91.) .......................... 99 

96. Black bees with little hair; fore wings with only two cubital cells; face almost 

always with yellow or white markings; nearly always small species. (Pro- 
sdpis) ................................................ PROSOPHXiE 

Hairy bees; fore wings with three cubital cells; moderate-sized species. (Col- 
Idtes) ................................................ COLLETIDjE 

97. Tongue more or less short, dagger-like; radial cell pointed; usually three cubital 

cells; maxillary palpi six-jointed; burrowing bees. (Andrena, Halictus, 
Augochl6ra, Agap6stemon, SphecSdes.) ................... ANDRENID^) 

Tongue elongate, though not so long as in some of the higher groups ; only two 
submarginal cells (except in Protandrena which has three) ; never brilliantly 
metallic, though rarely with the head and thorax green; often with yellow 
markings. (Panurgus) ................................ PANURGIDjE 

Tongue elongate; parasitic bees, usually highly ornamented, and with no pol- 
len-collecting apparatus ........................................... 98 

Tongue very long; first two joints of labial palpi elongate, sheath-like, last 
two minute; hairy, pollen-collecting bees, the males often with long an- 
tennae, and usually with the clypeus yellow. Melissddes, Anthophora, 
Hemisia (= Centris), Diadasia) ..................... ANTHOPHORID^E 

98. Maxillary palpi six-jointed; usually wasp-like in appearance, with bright yel- 

low and often red colors; almost always with three cubital cells; marginal 
cell pointed on costa. (N6mada) .......... ............... NOMADIDjE 

Maxillary palpi two- to six-jointed; usually robust bees with conspicuous mark- 
ings due to hair, but without yellow tegumentary markings. (Epeolus, 
Triepeolus, Bombomelecta, Neopasites.) .................. MELECTIIXE 



30 Key to Families of North American Insects. 

99. Fore wings with two cubital cells; labial palpi with the basal joints much elon- 
gated, the apical minute; underside of abdomen of female with a pollen- 
collecting scopa, except in the parasitic genera. (Coelioxys, Megachile, 
Heriades, Osmia, Stelis, Anthidium.) MEGACHILIDjE 

Fore wings always (in our species) with three cubital cells, the marginal cell 

narrow and as long as the cubitals united 100 

100. Hind tibia and tarsus of female with a dense pollen-collecting scopa; stigma 
obsolete; large robust bees, mainly tropical. (Xyl6copa) . . XYLOCOPIDJE 

Hind tibia and tarsus of female without distinct scopa; stigma large; small 
bees. (Ceratina) CERATINID^E 

ORDER COLEOPTERA. 

(ELEUTERATA; ELYTHROPTERA.} 

Moderate-sized, small or minute, more rarely very large, hard- 
bodied insects; head free, usually prominent; mandibles well 
developed; antennae ten- or eleven-jointed, sometimes less, very 
rarely more; ocelli nearly always absent; pro thorax free; two pairs 
of wings, the front pair (elytra) thickly chitinized, sheathing the 
meso- and metathorax and also nearly always the abdomen, 
almost always meeting in a straight line down the middle of the 
back; hind wings occasionally absent; legs homonomous, the tarsi 
usually with five or four joints; no cerci. Metamorphosis com- 
plete, the larva? mandibulate. A very large and widely distributed 
group, including beetles and weevils. 

1. First ventral segment divided by the hind coxal cavities (except the rare Cupe- 

didse) so that the sides are separated from the very small median part, the 
first three ventral segments immovably united; antennae thread-like or 
nearly so; hind wings with one or two crossveins near the middle, connecting 
the first and second branches of the media (PI. 7, figs. 158, 159); almost 

always carnivorous and predatory. Suborder ADEPHAGA 2 

First ventral segment visible for its entire breadth; wing without such cross- 
veins (PI. 7, figs. 160, 161). Suborder POL^PHAGA 8 

2. First three ventral segments immovably united 3 

Abdomen with five free ventral segments; metasternum with a piece in front 

of the hind coxae marked off by a distinct suture; rare bark beetles. (Cupes.) 

CUPEDID^ 

8. Metasternum with a transverse triangular antecoxal sclerite separated by a well 
marked suture, reaching from one side to the other and extending between 

the hind coxae (PI. 6, fig. 108) 4 

Metasternum with a short antecoxal sclerite, not prolonged posteriorly between 
the coxse, the suture indistinct; rare semiaquatic beetles. (Amphizda.) 

AMPHIZOIILE 



Coleoptera. 31 

Metasternum without an antecoxal sclerite 6 

4. Antennae eleven-jointed; hind coxae movable and simple; terrestrial 5 

Antennae ten-jointed; hind coxae fixed, expanded so as almost to conceal the 

base of the abdomen (PL 4, fig. 124); small water beetles. (Cnemiddtus, 
Haliplus.) HALIPLIIX 

5. Antennae inserted on the front, above the base of the mandibles; eyes promi- 

nent; head vertical, wider than the thorax. Tiger-beetles. (Cicindela, 

Omus, Tetracha.) CICIKDELID^ 

Antennae inserted on the sides of the head, between the base of the mandibles 
and the eyes; head usually held horizontally and generally narrower than 
the thorax. Ground beetles. (Omophron, CalosSma [Caterpillar-hunter], 
Bembidium, Platynus, Brachinus [Bombadier beetle], Pter6stichus, Har- 
palus, Chlamius) (PL 5, fig. 97; PL 6, fig. 108; PL 7, figs. 158, 164). 

CARABIIXE 

6. Metasternum prolonged behind as a triangular process; aquatic 7 

Metasternum not prolonged between the coxae; scutellum absent; antennae 

formed like a string of beads; rare bark beetles. (Rhysddes) (PL 7, fig. 146.) 

RHYSODIDvE 

7. Antennae slender, abdomen with six segments; eyes two. Diving beetles, 

Water-tigers. (Dytiscus, Cybfster, Acflius, Agabus, Colymbetes) (PL 5 

fig. 101) DYTISCnXE 

Antennae short, abdomen with seven segments; eyes four. Whirligig beetles. 
(Gyrinus, Dinettes) (PL 6, fig. 117; PL 7, fig. 147) GYRINnXffi 

8. Antennae clubbed or not, if clubbed, not lamellate 9 

Antennas with the last three to seven joints enlarged on one side to form a comb- 
like or lamellate club which can often be opened and closed (PL 7, figs. 
149, 150, 151) ; legs often fitted for digging; tarsi almost always five-jointed, 
front tarsi of some dung beetles may be absent; larvae with thick curved 
body and well-developed legs. (LAMELLICORNIA.) 114 

9. Head not prolonged into a beak; palpi flexible, gular sutures double, at least 

before and behind; prosternal sutures distinct, proepimera not meeting 

behind the prosternum 10 

Head generally prolonged and snout-like (PL 6, fig. 125), palpi nearly always 
rigid; gular sutures confluent medially; proepimera united behind the pro- 
sternum, prosternal sutures wanting, antennae often elbowed; fourth tarsal 
joint usually indistinct; larvae legless or with short legs. (RHYNCHOPHORA.) 110 

10. Fourth and fifth tarsal joints not immovably united, the articulation between 

them like those between the other joints (PL 7, figs, 143, 168) (If rarely 

immovably united as in some Erotylidae, the antennae are clavate) 11 

Fourth tarsal joint minute, fused with the fifth; tarsi usually densely pubes- 
cent below, the first three joints dilated and with a sole, the third joint 
usually bilobed (PL 7, figs. 157, 167); antennae thread-like, rarely serrate or 
thickened apically; plant feeders. (PHYTOPHAGA.) 108 

11. Hind tarsi with at least as many joints as the others 12 

Hind tarsi four-jointed, front and middle tarsi five-jointed. (HETER6MERA.) 86 



32 Key to Families of North American Insects. 

12. Maxillary palpi slender, almost always as long as or longer than the antennae; 

antennae six- to nine-jointed, the outer joints forming a pubescent, distinct 
club; usually aquatic, convex beetles. Larvae usually with cerci. (PAL- 
pic6RNiA.) Water scavenger beetles. (Hydr6philus, Laccdbius, Hydrdbius, 

Cercyon) (PI. 6, figs. 110, 111) HYDROPHILIDjE 

Maxillary palpi much shorter than the antennae; larvae never with cerci. (Di- 

VERSICORNIA, PoLYMOKPHA, or CLAVICORNIA and SERRICORNlA) 13 

13. Elytra short, exposing much of the abdomen; dorsal segments of abdomen 

entirely horny in texture; wings usually present and folded beneath the 

elytra, crossveins absent -. 14 

Elytra covering most of the abdomen, rarely much shortened, in which case 
the wings are wanting, or not folded beneath the elytra; dorsal segments 
partly membranous 15 

14. Abdomen flexible, seven or eight ventral segments, body usually slender; 

scavengers. Rove beetles. (Stenus, Staphylmus, Tachyporus, Philonthus) 

(PI. 5, fig. 95) STAPHYLINnXE 

Abdomen not flexible, five or six ventral segments; small or minute, robust 
beetles. (Bryaxis, Batrisddes) (PI. 7, figs. 138, 148). . . .PSELAPHnxffi 

15. Tarsi five-jointed on at least one pair of legs, and almost always on all pairs . . 16 
All tarsi with less than five joints 65 

16. Last tarsal joint long and with very large claws (PI. 7, fig. 143); first three 

ventral segments grown together; small aquatic or subaquatic beetles. 

(Psephenus, Dryops, Elmis) (DRYOPIDfi) PARNIIXE 

Tarsal claws normal; all ventral segments free except in the Colydiidae, Heter- 
oceridae, Buprestidae and some Byrrhidae which are not aquatic 17 

17. Abdomen with five ventral segments 18 

Abdomen with at least six ventral segments 50 

18. Front coxae globular or transverse, usually projecting but little from the coxal 

cavity; trochanters never interstitial 19 

Front coxae more or less conical and prominent 37 

19. Front coxae transverse, more or less cylindrical 20 

Front coxae globular 27 

20. Hind coxae grooved to receive the femora 21 

Hind coxae flat and not grooved 26 

21. Strongly convex beetles with more or less retractile legs, tibiae dilated and 

usually grooved near the outer end to receive the tarsi, tibial spurs dis- 
tinct 22 

Slightly convex oval species with non-retractile slender legs; tibial spurs more 
or less reduced 24 

22. Antennas inserted at sides of head 23 

Antennae inserted on front, head retracted; third tarsal joint lobed; thorax 

margined; oval tropical species (Chelonarium) CHELONARIED^; 

3. Head prominent, men turn large, elongate and subelliptical; tarsi not lobed. 

(Nosodendron.) NOSODENDRTD^E 

Head retracted, mentum small and quadrate; (Amphicyrta, Byrrhus). 

BYRRHIDAE 



Coleoptera. 33 

24. Front coxae with distinctly separated side-piece (trochantin). (Dascyllus.) 

DASCYLLIDJE 
Front coxa? without trochantin 25 

25. Posterior coxae at most moderately dilated internally. (Cyphon) (PI. 7, figs. 

127, 129.) (CYPHONIDJE.) HELODnXE 

Posterior coxae very large. (Eucinetus.) EUCINETIDJ2 

26. Tarsi more or less dilated, the first joint not shortened, fourth joint very small; 

elytra usually not extending to the tip of the abdomen. (Carpophilus, 

Omosita, Nitidula) NITIDULIDyE 

Tarsi slender, metatarsus short; elytra entire, never truncate, covering the 
abdomen. (Tenebridides, Peltis) (PL 7, fig. 135) (TROGOSITIDJE, 
TEMNOCHILIDM.) OSTOMATIDJE 

27. First and second ventral segments fused or immovably united; antennas 

serrate (pectinate in the male of Xenorhepis; tarsi with membranous lobes 
beneath; hard-bodied beetles, of more or less metallic color. (Chalcophora, 
Chrysobothris [C. femorata, Flat-head orchard-borer], Buprestis, Agrilus) 

(PL 5, fig. 93.) BUPRESTDXS; 

All ventral segments free, except in very rare cases 28 

28. Prosternum prolonged behind into a process which is received in the meso- 

sternum v ... 29 

Prosternum without such backwardly directed process 31 

29. Prothorax loosely joined to the mesothorax, freely movable, its hind angles 

usually prolonged backward into teeth; prosternal spine loosely received in 
a notch in the mesosternum; front coxal cavities contained entirely in 

the prosternum 30 

Prothorax firmly attached, not movable; front coxal cavities closed behind by 
the mesosternum. (Drapetes, Thr6scus.) THROSCID^E 

30. Labrum visible; prosternum lobed in front; beetles capable of moving the 

prothorax by its basal joint with a sudden clicking motion. Click- beetles, 
Wireworm beetles. (Alaus, Elater, Melandtus, Drasterius, Limdnius) (PL 

7, fig. 126, 128.) ELATERnXE 

Labrum concealed; prosternum not lobed in front; antennae inserted on the 
front, somewhat distant from the eyes; not able to leap by the prothoracic 
joint. (F6rnax, Microrhagus) .EUCNEMHX/E 

31. Hind coxae in contact; body very small, convex, oval or rounded-oval. 

(Phalacrus, Olibrus.) PHALACRHXE 

Hind coxae not in contact, although closely approximate in certain very much 
flattened species 32 

32. Elytra shortened, leaving two segments of the abdomen uncovered, antennae 

elbowed, very strongly clavate; tibiae compressed, front pair usually toothed. 

(Hister, Saprinus, Hololepta) (PL 7, fig. 141.) .mSTERID^ 

Elytra entire 33 

33. Tibiae dilated and toothed externally; large tropical beetles with strongly 

clubbed antennae. (Syntelia.) SYNTELIID.<E 

Tibiae simple or linear, at most the front pair somewhat dilated 34 

4 



84 Key to Families of North American Insects. 

34. Middle coxal cavities open externally, i. e. not closed by the meeting of the 

meso- and metasterna; body elongate, greatly flattened. (Silvanus, Cftcu- 
jus, Lsemophloeus, Brontes) (PL 5, fig. 96.) ............... CUCUJID./E 

Middle coxal cavities closed externally by the sterna ..................... 35 

35. Prosternum not prolonged. (See couplet 74.) 

Tribe DIPHYLLINI of the MYCETOPHAGID^B 
Prosternum prolonged behind, meeting the mesosternum ................. 36 

36. Front coxal cavities open behind (PL 6, fig. 114); small or minute species. 

(Atomaria, Crypt6phagus) ......................... CRYPTOPHAGID^ 

Front coxal cavities closed behind (PL 6, fig. 119); larger beetles, usually black, 
with orange-red spots. (Megalodachne) (PL 7, fig. 168). 

Group D ACNES of the EROTYLID^B 

37. Hind coxae dilated into plates which are grooved for the reception of the 

femora ..................................... . .................... 38 

Hind coxae not thus dilated, nor grooved for the reception of the femora .... 42 

38. Front coxal cavities closed behind (PL 6, fig. 119) ....................... 39 

Front coxal cavities open behind (PL 6, fig. 114) ........................ 40 

39. Second and third joints of tarsi lobed beneath; plate of hind coxae feeble; small, 

pubescent beetles. (Bytfcrus.) ............................. BYTURID^ 

Tarsi simple, not lobed; small, coarsely punctured beetles. (Derod6ntus.) 

DERODONTIIXE 

40. Antennae with the last three joints much enlarged, forming a strong club; 

small, or rather small, often scaly beetles. (Dermestes [D. larddrius, 
Larder-beetle] Attagenus, Anthrenus {Museum-beetle, Carpet-beetle]) (PL 
5, fig. 94; PL 7, fig. 152) ............................... DERMESTID^E 

Antennae not capitate ................................................ 41 

41. Tarsi with a large, hairy pad (onychium) between the claws; moderate-sized 

or large, elongate-oval beetles; tibial spurs present, small. (Sandalus.) 



Onychium not developed or very small; no tibial spurs. (Sitodrepa, Andbia) 
(PL 7. fig. 131.) .......................................... ANOBIUXE 

42. First joint of tarsi very short and indistinctly separated from the second. .43 
First joint of tarsi distinct, when rarely very short, the first ventral segment 

is not elongated and the head not deflexed ........................... 44 

43. First ventral segment elongated, always much longer than the second; antennae 

with a quite distinct two-jointed club; small elongate beetles with prominent 
head not covered by the prothorax. Powder-post beetles. (Lyctus) 
(PL 5, fig. 103.) ........................................... LYCTIIXE 

First ventral segment not elongated; antennal club three- or four-jointed; head 
usually deflexed and protected by the prothorax; declivity of elytra often 
toothed or spined; elongate, more or less cylindrical beetles. (Sinoxylon, 
B6strychus, Polycaon [P. confertus, Prune-twig borer], Schistoceros 
[S. hamatus= Amphicerus bicaudatus, Apple-twig borer]) (APAT1DJ 

BOSTRYCHIDjE 

44. Hind coxae flat or oval, not prominent ................................. 45 

Hind coxae prominent internally, more or less conical .................... 48 



Coleoptera. 35 

45. Fourth joint of tarsi extremely short, not visible from above; small beetles of 

rather bright colors. (NecrSbia, Phyllobamus, Pyticera) (PI. 7, fig. 133.) 

CORYNEimE 
Fourth joint of tarsi not abnormally short ............................. 46 

46. Fifth segment of abdomen conically produced, as long as the three preceding 

ones; elytra not covering the abdomen completely. (Scaphidium, Baeo- 
cera, ScaphisSma) .............................. , ..... SCAPfflDinXE 

Fifth abdominal segment not elongated nor conically produced ............ 47 

47. Trochanters attached to the internal margin of the femora. (TrichSdes, 

Clerus, Thanasimus) (PI. 7, fig. 132.) ....................... CLERID^ 

Trochanters interstitial, i. e. attached to the base of the femora. (Ptinus, 
Mezium.) . ............................................... PTINID^ 

48. Antennae capitate, i. e. the last three joints forming an abrupt club; elytra 

truncate. (Sphaerites.) ............................... SPH^RITID^ 

Antennae simple, not clubbed ................................... . ..... 49 

49. Front coxae with a distinct side piece (trochantin). (See couplet 61.) 

Some MALACHI1DJE 
Front coxae without trochantin; long, narrow beetles. (Lymexylon.) 

LYMEXYLONIDJE 

50. Front coxae flat, rounded or globular, small and not prominent ............ 51 

Front coxae conical, prominent, usually large .......................... .54 

51. Front coxae flat, elytra not longer than the prothorax, exposing five abdominal 

segments; small wingless beetles parasitic on beavers. (Platypsyllus.) 

PLATYPSYLLnXE 
Front coxae rounded or globular; not such beetles ........................ 52 

52. Prosternum prolonged behind into a process which is received in a notch in 

the mesosternum; prothorax loosely attached to the mesothorax ........ 53 

Prosternum without such a backwardly directed process; eyes very small or 
wanting; rare minute beetles living in the nests of rodents. (Leptinus.) 

LEPTINUXE 

53. Labrum fused with the front; antennae distant at base. (Cebrio, Scaptolenus.) 



Labrum free. (Plastocerus, Euthysanius.) ........... A very few Elateridae 

54. Abdomen with six ventral segments ................................... 55 

Abdomen with seven or eight ventral segments ......................... 63 

55. Fifth segment of abdomen conical, as long as the three preceding segments 

together, the sixth minute. (See couplet 46.) ........... SCAPHIDIID^ 

Fifth segment not conical nor excessively elongated ..................... 56 

56. Hind coxae flat, not prominent, covered by the femora in repose; first joint of 

posterior tarsi usually very short and indistinct ...................... 57 

Hind coxae prominent, at least internally ............................... 58. 

57. Tarsi with the fourth joint of normal size; pronotum continuous with the 

propleura (see couplet 46) .................................. CLEKJDM 

Tarsi with the fourth joint very small and indistinct; pronotum separated from 
the flanks by a marginal line (see couplet 45) ........... CORYNETID^. 



36 Key to Families of North American Insects. 

58. Hind coxae widely separated 59 

Hind coxae approximated or contiguous 60 

59. Eyes absent (see couplet 60) A few SILPHmE 

Eyes present, coarsely granulated; small, more or less ovate, brown beetles. 

(Euc6nnus, C6nnophron.) SCYDM^NID^E 

60. Tibial spurs large, antennae gradually thickened or clavate; hind tarsi slender, 

not widened. Carrion-beetles (Necr6phorus, Silpha, Ptomophagus) (PI. 6, 

fig. 109; PI. 7, figs. 136, 137, 139, 140) SfLPHmffi 

Tibial spurs small or indistinct 61 

61. Front coxae with a distinct side piece (trochantin) ; rather small, -usually soft- 

bodied species. (Malachius, Collops) (M ELY RID ^) MALACHHD^E 

Front coxae without trochantin 62 

62. Elytra shortened, exposing several of the abdominal segments; very small 

species. (Micromalthus.) MICROMALTHmE 

Elytra entire. (Lymexylon, Hylocoetus.) LYMEXYLONHXE 

63. Middle coxae distant; epipleurae wanting; elytra usually with a reticulate sculp- 

ture; no phosphorescent organs. (Cal6pteron, Eros.) LYCHX32 

Middle coxae in contact; epipleurae distinct; elytra not reticulate 64 

64. Episterna of metathorax sinuate on the inner side; head nearly or quite covered 

by the thorax; epipleurae usually wide at the base of the elytra; phosphor- 
escent organs generally present. Fire-flies. (Luciddta, Ellychnia, Photinus, 

Photftris, Phengddes.) (MALACODtiRMIDM) LAMPYRID^ 

Episterna of metathorax not sinuate on inner side; head not at all covered 
by the thorax; epipleurae narrow at the base; no phosphorescent organs. 
(Chauli6gnathus, Podabrus, Telephorus.) TELEPHORID^ 

65. Tarsi four-jointed, front ones three-jointed in the males of some Myceto- 

phagidse 66 

Tarsi with three joints or less 76 

66. Wings fringed with long hairs 67 

Wings not fringed 68 

67. Hind coxae in contact, with plates at least partially covering the femora. 

(Clambus, Calyptomerus.) CLAMBER 

Hind coxae distant, transverse, not laminate; third joint of tarsi small, concealed 
in the bilobed second joint. (Corylophddes, Molamba.) (CORY- 
LOPHIDfi.) ORTHOPERIDJE 

68. Ventral segments all free and movable : 69 

Ventral segments one to four firmly united, immovable 75 

69. First tarsal joint greatly dilated, overlapping the very minute second and 

third joints and a part of the long fourth joint; minute tropical beetles 

(Adimfcrus) (PI. 7, fig. 163) ADIMERID.E 

First tarsal joint not thus dilated 70 

70. Front coxae transverse; minute fungus beetles (Cybocephalus) (see couplet 26). 

NITIDULnXE, part 
Front coxae not transverse 71 



Coleoptera. 37 

71. Front coxae globose 72 

Front coxae oval 73 

72. Tarsi slender, third joint distinct, but shorter than the second; very small 

species. (Rhymbus, Rhanis) (PI. 7, fig. 142) MYCET^5ID.aS 

Tarsi more or less dilated and spongy beneath; elongate beetles with hard body 
and strongly clubbed antennae. (Langilria, Tritoma, ErStylus.) 

EROTYLDXE 

73. Front coxae almost in contact, prosternum more or less membranous, not 

visible between them. (Georyssus.) GEORYSSIDJE 

Front coxae well separated by the horny prosternum 74 

74. Head more or less concealed by the projecting prothorax; body cylindrical. 

(Cis, Ennearthron.) CIOID^ 

Head free, not covered by the prothorax; body oval, depressed, pubescent. 
(Mycetophagus, Litargus.) MYCETOPHAGIIXE 

75. Antennae thickened, or with a two-jointed club; tibiae simple, not dilated nor 

spinose. (Ditoma, Cerylon, Philothermus.) COLYDIID.S2 

Antennae with a large serrate, seven-jointed club; front and middle tibiae 
dilated and armed with rows of spines. (Heterocerus) (PL 7, fig.144). 

HETEROCERnXE 

76. Tarsi three-jointed 77 

Tarsi with less than three joints 85 

77. Wings fringed with long hairs 78 

Wings not fringed 80 

78. Abdomen with only three ventral segments; very small, rare beetles occurring 

beneath stones in the Pacific region. (Sphaerius.) SPH^RIIDJE 

Abdomen with six or seven ventral segments 79 

79. Antennae slender, nine- to eleven-jointed, with whorls of long hairs; very 

minute, shining beetles found on foliage. (Nossidium, Trichopteryx, 

Nephanes.) (TRICHOPTERYGIDJE.) PTILfflXE 

Antennae short, eight-jointed, thickened apically; a rare aquatic beetle from 
California. (Hydroscapha.) HYDROSCAPHIDJE 

80. Second joint of tarsi dilated; the third joint consisting really of two joints, the 

small, true third joint being fused with the base of the last joint, which thus 

appears as the third 81 

Second tarsal joint not dilated 82 

81. Tarsal claws dilated or toothed at the base; first ventral segment with curved 

coxal lines; small, rounded, convex, usually brightly spotted beetles. 
"Lady-birds" (Coccinella, Hippodamia, Adalia, Megflla, Anatis, Epilachna) 

(PL 6, figs. 118, 120, 121, 123) COCCINELLDXSB 

Tarsal claws simple, first ventral segment without coxal lines; small, oblong 
or oval beetles, often with a striking color pattern. (End6mychus, Lyco- 
perdina, Aphorista.) ENDOMYCHID^E 

82. Elytra entire 83 

Elytra truncate, exposing the last abdominal segment 84 



38 Key to Families of Xorth American Insects. 

83. Body broadly oval, convex; tropical bee ties. (Aphaenocephalus) (D1SCOLOM- 

ID&, PSEUDOCORYLOPHIDfl) APJLENOCEPHALHX& 

Body more elongate, the prothorax narrower than the elytra and often marked 
with elevated lines. (Corticaria, Cartodere, Melanophthalma) (PI. 7, fig. 
145) LATHRIDilIXE 

84. Front coxae subtrans verse; maxillae with a single lobe. (Tribe Smicriptini, a 

rare beetle from Florida) (Smicrips.) NITIDULID^E, part 

Front coxae small, rounded; maxillae bilobed; small, flattened bark beetles. 
(Monotoma, Bactridium.) MONOTOMIIXE 

85. Tarsi apparently two-jointed, but with the second and third joints very minute. 

(PL 7, fig. 163). (See couplet 69) ADIMERID^E 

Tarsi one-jointed; minute tropical beetles with four-jointed antennae (Cyatho- 
cerus) CYATHOCERIDjE 

86. Front coxal cavities closed behind (PL 6, fig. 119) 87 

Front coxal cavities open behind (PL 6, fig. 114) 93 

87. Tarsal claws simple 88 

Tarsal claws pectinate; usually elongate, convex thinly silky-pubescent beetles. 

(Hymenorus, Mycetochares) (ALLECULIDM) CISTELDXE 

88. Ventral segments all freely movable (If the mesosternum is carinate, compare 

some rare Silphidae, couplet 60) 89 

First two to four ventral segments more closely connected together, more or 
less fused and immovable 91 

89. Front coxal cavities separated by the prosternum (PL 6, fig. 119) 90 

Antennae eleven-jointed; front coxal cavities confluent (Othnius) OTHNinXSS 

90. Elytra entire; small convex beetles (Sphindus) SPHINDID^ 

Elytra truncate, exposing the pygidium; small flattened beetles (males of 

Rhizophagus) (see couplet 26) NnTDULmE 

91. Five ventral segments 92 

Six ventral segments, the first two immovably united; a small black beetle 

from Alaska. Cffigialites.) MGIALITIDM 

92. Penultimate joint of tarsi spongy pubescent beneath; front coxae prominent; 

slender, elongate species with cylindrical prothorax, usually of somewhat 

metallic color. (Arthromacra, Statira.) LAGRIIDjE 

Penultimate joint of tarsi not spongy pubescent beneath; front coxae short, not 
projecting from the cavities; beetles of varying form, oval, elongate, or even 
pedunculate, usually black or dark colored with more or less bead-like 
joints to the antennae. (Nyctobates, Tenebrio [T. mdlitor, Mealworm] 
Blapsfinus, Platydema, Diaperis, Eleddes) (PL 5, fig.105) TENEBRIONID^E 

93. Head not strongly or suddenly narrowed or constricted behind the eyes. . . .94 
Head strongly and suddenly constricted behind the eyes 99 

94. Middle coxae not noticeably prominent 95 

Middle coxae very prominent; prothorax without lateral margin; penultimate 

tarsal joint dilated and with a dense brush of hairs beneath; soft-bodied 
species. (Nacerdes, Asclera, Copidita.) (EDOMERID^E 



Coleoptera. 39 

95. Antennae received hi grooves on the underside of the prothorax; small, black, 

oval, flattened beetles. (Hyporhagus.) MONOMMID^ 

Antennae free, not received in grooves 96 

96. Prothorax with a sharp lateral margin 97 

Prothorax not margined laterally, narrowed behind, its disk without impres- 
sions. (Pytho, B6ros) PYTHID^ 

97. Epimera of the mesothorax not reaching the coxae, the coxal cavities entirely 

surrounded by the sterna (Males of several genera) (see couplet 36) 

CRYPTOPHAGIIXE, part 
Epimera of mesothorax attaining the coxae 98 

98. Metasternum long; epimera of metathorax visible; prothorax widened toward 

the base; its disk with basal impressions (Penthe, EustrSphus, Melandrya, 

Synchrda) MELANDRYIDjE 

Metasternum quadrate; epimera of metathorax covered. (Males of several 
genera) (see couplet 33) CUCUJID.^ part 

99. Head prolonged behind and gradually narrowed; prothorax not margined, as 

wide as the elytra at base. (Cephaldon) CEPHALOONID^ 

Head suddenly narrowed behind 100 

100. Prothorax with a sharp lateral margin 101 

Prothorax without a sharp lateral margin, rounded on the sides 103 

101. Antennae thread-like 102 

Antennae pectinate (male) or subserrate (female); tarsal claws serrate or 

toothed. (Plecotoma) Tribe Evaniocerini of the RHIPIPHORIDjE 

102. Hind coxae furnished with flattened plates; head placed vertically against the 

thorax; body conically narrowed behind, the abdomen usually prolonged 
and pointed at tip; small beetles. (Mordellistena, Mordella, Tomoxia) 

(PI. 7, fig. 166) MORDELLIDjE 

Hind coxse without flattened plates, transverse. (Canifa.). . SCRAPTin^ 

103. Base of prothorax narrower than the elytra 104 

Base of prothorax as wide as the elytra; body broad, much narrowed behind; 

elytra usually shortened and narrowed behind. (Rhipiphorus, Myodites.) 

RHIPIPHORID^ 

104. Hind coxae not prominent; tarsal claws simple 105 

Hind coxae large and prominent 107 

105. Eyes more or less emarginate 106 

Eyes elliptical, entire, rather coarsely granulated. (Macratria, Notoxus, 

Anthicus) ANTHICnXE 

106. Head constricted far behind the finely granulated eyes. (Corphyra.) 

PEDILIIXE 

Head constricted just behind the coarsely granulated eyes. (Hylophilus.) 

HYLOPHiLIDjE 

107. Tarsal claws simple; head horizontal; antennae serrate, often pectinate in the 

male; body flattened; moderate sized beetles. (PyrochrSa, Dendrdides) 
(PI. 7, fig. 130) PYROCHROIIXE 



40 Key to Families of North American Insects. 

Tarsal claws toothed or cleft; head deflexed, with the front vertical; elytra 
often shortened; body more or less cylindrical; moderately large beetles. 
Blister beetles (Meloe, Nemognatha, Macr6basis, Epicauta, Pomphoposa) 
(PI. 5, fig. 99) (CANTHARIDJE LYTTID&) MELOIIX& 

108. Submentum pedunculate, i. e. the mentum supported at its base by a narrow 

portion or peduncle; antennae serrate; head prolonged into a broad muzzle; 
elytra shortened so as to expose the pygidium. Pea and bean weevils. 
(BrHchus[B.obt6ctus, Bean- weevil; B. pisbrum, Pea- weevil], Spermophagus) 

(PI. 5, fig. 102) (LARHDJE, MYOLABRIDM) BRUCIfflX& 

Submentum not pedunculate; head not prolonged into a broad beak; antennae 
rarely distinctly serrate 109 

109. Antenna? usually long or greatly developed, frequently inserted on frontal 

prominences; front often vertical, large and quadrate; pronotum rarely 
margined; tibial spurs distinct; usually rather large, elongate or oblong 
beetles with parallel sides and pubescent upper surface. Longicorns. 
(Parandra, Elaphidion [Twig-pruners], Cyllene [C. robinioe, Locust-borer], 
Monohammus, Saperda [S. cdndida, Round-head apple-borer], Tetraopes) 
including SPONDYLIDJE. (PL 5, fig. 100; PI. 7, fig. 167.) 

CERAMBYCEXE 

Antenna? moderate or short, not inserted on frontal prominences; front small, 
oblique, sometimes inflexed; pronotum most frequently margined; tibial 
spurs usually wanting; small or moderate sized; body usually glabrous above 
and very often brightly colored; rather oval in form. Leaf Beetles. (Dona- 
cia, Cryptocephalus, Pachybrachys, Calligrapha, Criocerus [C. aspdragi, 
Asparagus-beetle], Galerucella [G. luteola, Imported elm-leaf beetle], Dia- 
brfitica [Corn root- worms], Haltica [Flea-beetles], Epitrix [Flea-beetles] 
Chalepus (=0dontdta), [C. dorsalis, Locust leaf-miner], Leptinotirsa 
(=Doryphora) [L. decemlineata, Colorado potato-beetle]) (PI. 5, fig. 104; 
PI. 7, fig. 157) CHRYSOMELIIXE 

110. Rostrum extremely short and broad, scarcely developed; antennae short, with 

a broad club; tibiee often with several teeth externally; small, oval or cylin- 
drical beetles of uniform brownish or blackish color Ill 

Rostrum of variable length, but always distinctly developed and usually 
long; antennae with a less pronounced club or not clubbed; tibiae without a 
series of teeth externally 112 

111. First joint of the tarsi as long as the others united; head broader than the 

prothorax; eyes rounded. (Platypus) (PI. 6, fig. 116; PI. 7, fig. 156). 

PLATYPODHXE 

First joint of the tarsi much shorter than the combined length of the others; 
head narrower than the prothorax; eyes oval, emarginate or divided. Bark- 
beetles, (fps (=Tomlcus), Eccoptogaster [E. rugulbsus. Shot-hole borer; 
E. midtistriatus, Imported elm bark-beetle], Dendr6ctonus [Pine and Spruce 
bark-beetles], Xyleborus [Timber-beetles], Monarthrum) (PI. 6, figs. 112, 
122; PI. 7, figs. 154, 155, 162) (SCOLYTID&) IPIIXE 

112. Antennae not elbowed; palpi usually exposed 113 

Antennae almost always elbowed, with the basal joint much elongated; palpi 



Strepsiptera. 41 

small, nearly always concealed within the mouth, short and rigid; snout 
strongly curved downwards, especially when long. Weevils. (Otiorhynchus 
(= Brachyrhlnus) [0. ovatus, Strawberry root-weevil], Phyt6nomus [Clover 
and alfalfa weevils], Pissddes [P. strbbi, White-pine weevil], Anth6nomus 
[A. grdndis, Mexican cotton-boll weevil; A. quadrigibbus, Apple curculioL 
Conotrachelus [C. nenuphar, Plum curculio], Cryptorhynchus [C. Idpathi, 
Willow and poplar weevil], Balaninus [Nut weevils], Sphenophorus [Corn, 
bill-bugs], Calandra [C. granaria, Granary weevil]) (Including RHINOMA- 
C&RIDM, RHINCH'ITID^, ATTELABIDM, BRYSOPIDM, 0770- 
RHYNCHIDffi (=BRACHYRHINIDM), CALANDRIDM) (PI. 5, fig. 
106; PI. 6, fig. 125; PI. 7, fig. 153) CURCULIONIDJSE 

113. Prothorax elongate, elytra covering the pygidium, first two ventral segments 

fused; rostrum short and broad. (Cratoparis, Brachytarsus) ANTHRIBK)^ 
Prothorax not elongate, usually trapezoidal; pygidium exposed; ventral seg- 
ments free, rostrum very long in the female, sometimes entirely absent in 
the male. (Eftpsalis, Brenthus, Cylas) (PI. 6, fig. 115) BRENTHIDJE 

114. Lamellae of antennal club not capable of closing together, usually not flat- 

tened, but forming a more or less comb-like mass 115 

Lamellae of antennal club flattened and capable of close apposition 117 

115. Mentum entire, the ligula behind, or at the apex of the mentum 116 

Mentum deeply emarginate, the ligula large, corneous, filling the emargina- 

tion; large, elongate, shining beetles with deeply lined elytra. (Passalus) 

PASSALIIXflS 

116. Ligula and maxillae covered by the mentum; antennae usually elbowed. Stag- 

beetles. (Lucanus, Dorcus, Platycerus, Cerikhus) (PI. 7, fig. 149). 

LUCANID^ 
Ligula and maxillae not covered; antennae straight. (Sinodendron.) 

SINODENDRID.E 

117. Side pieces of the mesosternum not attaining the coxae; elytra with more or 

less distinct rows of tubercles; rather small or moderate-sized beetles. 

(Trox.) TROGIDjE 

Side pieces of the mesosternum attaining the coxa?; moderate-sized, or large, 
stout-bodied, usually very convex beetles, with stout front legs, usually 
formed for digging. (Onthophagus, Canthon [Tumble-bug], Aph6dius r 
Geotrftpes, Macrodactylus [Rose Chafer], Lachnosterna [June-bug], Pelid- 
n6ta) (PI. 5, fig. 107; PI. 7, figs. 150, 151) SCARAB^ID^B 

ORDER STREPSIPTERA. 

(RHIPIPTERA.) 

Small species parasitic on insects, the adult males winged and 
free-living, but the larviform females never leaving the body of 
their host. Male with the head free, with well-developed eyes; 
antennae with three to seven joints, some of the joints prolonged 
into a long lateral process (flabellum) ; prothorax greatly reduced, 



42 Key to Families of North American Insects. 

metathorax very large; fore wings reduced to small club-like 
balancers; hind wings large, very delicate, with a few fine radiat- 
ing veins. Female with the mouth-parts and antennae vestigial; 
head and thorax fused into one piece, sexual openings in the form 
of segmental usually unpaired canals opening on several of the 
abdominal segments. 

1. Wingless, larviform, never leaving the host (Females) 2 

Winged, free living insects (Males) 4 

2. Spiracles more or less easily discernible, generally prominent; four or five genital 

tubes entering the brood canal; parasitic on bees, wasps and ants. (Stylops, 

Xenos) (PL 8, figs. 169, 172) XENID^E 

Spiracles not usually discernible, never prominent 3 

3. Tubercles of head apical; parasitic on Homoptera. (Agalliophagus, Antheri- 

c6mma.) HALICTOPHAGIIXE 

Tubercles of head more or less obsolete, ventral; only three genital tubes entering 
the brood canal; parasitic on Homoptera (Fulgoroidea). (Mecynocera, 
Pentagrammaphila.) ELENCHID^E 

4. Tarsi five-jointed, with two claws; antennae seven-jointed, the third and fourth 

joints produced laterally into long flabella; hosts unknown. (Trioxocera 

(Mexico)) MENGEID^E 

Tarsi with four joints or less, without claws 5 

-5. Tarsi four-jointed; antennae with only the third joint flabellate. (PL 8, figs- 

171, 175) XENID^E 

Tarsi three-jointed; antennae with the third or the third to sixth joints flabellate. 

(PL 8, fig. 170) HALICTOPHAGnXE 

Tarsi two-jointed; antennae with only the third joint flabellate. . .ELENCHID./E 

ORDER EMBIIDINA. 
(EMBIOIDEA, EMBIOPTERA, OLIGONEURA.) 

Elongate feeble insects scarcely half an inch in length, occurring 
in or near the tropics. Two pairs of similar wings superimposed 
over the abdomen, or wingless; a pair of short anal cerci; first 
joint of the front tarsi swollen and fitted for spinning delicate 
tubular webs. 

1. Last dorsal plate of the abdomen not divided, nearly symmetrical, without 
processes; first joint of left cercus simple, usually cylindrical; neuration 

complete. (Olyntha) (PL 8, fig. 174) OLYNTHIIXE 

Supraanal plate asymmetrical, deeply excised or divided, with processes 2 

2. Cerci slightly asymmetrical, first joint of left cercus simple, cylindrical, straight 
or slightly curved or even clubbed, always without teeth on the inner side; 
neuration strongly reduced. Posterior branch of the radial vein not forked 



OdonataPlecloptera. 43 

in either wing, media and cubitus much reduced and usually- indistinct. 

(Oligotoma.) OLIGOTOMID^E 

'Cerci strongly asymmetrical, first joint of left cercus variously deformed, usually 
dentate within; neuration usually complete. (Anisembia) (PI. 8, fig. 173). 

EMBIID^E 

ORDER ODONATA. 

(LIBELLULOIDEA, PARANEUROPTERA.) 

Slender predatory insects, usually of large size and usually 
strong fliers; head mobile, eyes large, three ocelli; antennae minute, 
mouth inferior, mandibles strong; pro thorax small but free, 
meso- and metathorax fused, abdomen long and flexible, cerci one- 
jointed; legs not large, similar, placed far forward, tarsi three- 
jointed; wings four, nearly alike; elongate, membranous, 
net-veined, not folded, with characteristic nodus, arculus and tri- 
angle and with the radial sector crossing the anterior branch of the 
media. Metamorphosis considerable, the nymphs aquatic, no rest- 
ing pupal stage. 

1. Wings alike, held on edge over the abdomen in repose; eyes stalked. Damsel 

flies. (ZYGOPTERA.) 2 

Wings somewhat dissimilar, horizontally out-spread in repose; eyes not ped- 
uncled. Dragon flies. (ANISOPTERA.) 3 

2. At least five antecubital crossveins between the first and second veins before 

the nodus. (Calopteryx, Hetaerina) CALOPTERYGHXE 

Only two antecubital crossveins. (Lestes, Enallagma) (C(ENAGRI- 
dNWM) AGRIONHXE 

3. Antecubital crossveins of first and second series not meeting except at base of 

wing. (Anax, ^schna, Gomphus, Cordulegaster) (Including GOMPEIDM 

CORDULEG ASTRIDE JESCHNDXE 

Antecubital crossveins of first series meeting those of the second. (Libellula, 
Diplax, CordMia) (PI. 8, figs. 176, 178) (Including CORDULllDM) 

LEBELLULIDiE 

ORDER PLECTOPTERA. 

(EPHEMEROPTERA, EPHEMEROIDEA, AGNATHA, EPHEMERIDA.) 

Delicate insects with short antennae and rudimentary mouth. 
Hind wings generally present and much smaller than the fore wings. 
Two or three long caudal filaments present. Nymphs aquatic, 
gill-bearing, suddenly changing to the adult. Adults short lived, 
but molting before sexual maturity. May flies or Sand-flies. 

(Hexagenia, Baetis, Heptagenia) (PL 8, figs. 181, 183) EPHEMERIDJB 



44 Key to Families of North American Insects. 

ORDER PLECOPTERA. 

(PERLARIA.) 

Body soft, of moderate to large size; four membranous wings, 
usually with many veins, anal area of hind wings large and pleated, 
rarely with the wings greatly reduced in size; antennae long, thread- 
like. Larvae aquatic, metamorphosis slight. Stoneflies, Salmon- 
flies. 

(Pteronarcys, Perla, Chloroperla, Nemoura) (PI. 8, figs. 180, 182). 

PERLIDjE 



ORDER MEGALOPTERA. 

Soft-bodied species with large wings, long and sometimes pec- 
tinate antennae and simple similar legs. Costal cell with many 
transverse veins, subcosta and radius simple, the radial sector 
arising near the base, anal space of hind wings large, folded fan- 
like when at rest; pro thorax quadrate. Larvae aquatic, predatory, 
with lateral abdominal gill -filaments; wings appearing during the 
resting nymphal stage. 

Accessory veins at the end of the radial sector extending anteriorly; ocelli want- 
ing; fourth tarsal joint prominently lobed on each side. (Sialis.) 

SIALIDIIXE 

Accessory veins of the radial sector extending posteriorly; three ocelli present; 
fourth tarsal joint scarcely bilobed. (Corydalis [C. cornuta, Dobson, Hell- 
grammite], Chauliddes) (PI. 8, figs. 179, 186) CORYDALID^ 



ORDER RAPHIDIOIDEA. 

(EMMENOGNATHA, part) 

Moderate-sized, slender, predatory species with elongate cylin- 
drical prothorax; head large, nearly horizontal, mandibles strong, 
antennae long and thread-like; wings membranous; both pairs 
similar, with numerous forkings, the costal cell with crossveins; 
legs similar, the first pair attached at base of prothorax, tarsi 
five-jointed; cerci not developed. Metamorphosis complete. 

(Raphidia, Inocellia) (PI. 8, fig. 185.) RAPHTDIID^ 



Neuroptera. 45 - 

ORDER NEUROPTERA. 

(MEGALOPTERA, SYNISTATA (part), 
DICTYOPTERA (part) ). 

Small to rather large, slender, predaceous insects with large 
wings but of slow flight. Head free, vertical, eyes prominent, 
mouth inferior, mandibles strong; pro thorax more or less free and 
prominent, meso- and metathorax not closely grown together; 
abdomen long and narrow, no cerci; wings similar, membranous, 
no large anal field, when at rest the wings lie roof-like over the 
abdomen, longitudinal veins almost always very numerous, costal 
cell almost always with cross-veins. Metamorphosis complete, 
larvse terrestrial. 

1. Front legs formed for seizing prey. (Mantispa, Symphasis) (PL 8, figs. 177, 

188, 189) MANTISPnXE 

Front legs not raptorial 2 

2. Veins and usually crossveins abundant 3 

Veins and crossveins few in number, wings covered with a whitish powder; small 

rare species. (Coniopteryx, Malacomyza) CONIOPTERYGDXE 

3. Antennae clubbed; wings with a network of veins, the subcosta and radius 

apically fused 4 

Antennae not clubbed 5 

4. Antennae more than half as long as the wings. (Ululddes, Colobopterus.) 

ASCALAPHnXE 

Antennae not one-third as long as the wings. Ant lions. (Myrmeleon, Den- 
dr61eon, Brachynemtlrus.) MYRMELEONIDJ3 

5. Antennae thread-like; 'no recurrent vein, subcosta not fused with radius. Lace- 

wing fly or Aphis lion. (Chrysdpa, Meledma.) CHRYSOPIIXE 

Antennae like a string of beads (moniliform) or comb-like (pectinate) 6 

6. Ocelli absent; female with ovipositor; antennae of male pectinate. (Dilar) 

(PL 8, fig. 184) DILARIDJE 

Ocelli present; no ovipositor; antennae moniliform 7 

7. Subcosta fused with radius toward end of wing, wings with almost no crossveins 

except a graduated series, forming an oblique row of steps across the wing . . 8 
Subcosta and radius separate, although approximate, recurrent vein present or 
absent. (Hemerdbius, Boriomyia, Sympherdbius, Micromus.) 

HEMEROBiKME 

8. A distinct recurrent vein at base of fore wing, crossveins (except costals) with- 

out bristles; cubitus of fore wings forked near base, media forked at about 
one- third its length; body rather stout. (Polystoechotes) 

POLYSTCECHOTID^; 
No recurrent vein 9 



46 Key to Families of North American Insects. 

9. Wings acute at apex; outer margin of fore wings distinctly emarginate, cross- 
veins with bristles; hind wings with a fork to the cubitus that extends very 

close to the hind margin. (Lomamyia) BEROTHID^E 

Outer margin of fore wing not emarginate, crossveins not bristly. (Sisyra, 
Climacia) SISYRDXE 

ORDER PANORPATJE. 
(MECOPTERA.) 

Small to moderate-sized predatory insects with the head drawn 
out to form a sort of beak; wings when present long, narrow and 
similar, crossveins and veins moderately numerous; mandibles 
small, antennae long and hair-like; prothorax small; legs long, 
similar, fitted for running; coxa? large, pendant and approximate* 
tarsi five-jointed; abdomen usually slender, cerci small, ninth 
segment of male greatly swollen and reflexed. Metamorphosis 
complete, larvae resembling caterpillars. Scorpion flies. 

1. Three ocelli present; winged species, costal margin without crossveins 2. 

Ocelli absent 3 

2. Tarsi with two claws; cubitus of fore wings forked near the base. Scorpion- 

flies. (Pan6rpa) (PI. 9, figs. 190, 191, 192, 194) PANORPUXE 

Tarsi with a single claw; cubitus simple. (Bittacus) (PI. 9, fig. 193). 

BITTACUSIIXE 

3. Wings well developed, costal cell with many crossveins. (Merdpe.) 

MEROPIILE 
Wingless, or with very short wings. (BorSus) BOREIDjE 

ORDER TRICHOPTERA. 

(PHRYGANOIDEA.) 

Small to medium-sized, slender, flying insects; head movable^ 
vertical, eyes prominent, ocelli three or none, mandibles vestigial, 
palpi prominent, antennae thread-like, often very long; prothorax 
small; wings more or less clothed with hairs, with many veins and 
a few crossveins, the hind wings with a folded anal area; legs 
similar, coxae pendant and approximate, tarsi five-jointed. Meta- 
morphosis complete, larvae aquatic case-bearers. Caddice flies. 

1. Minute, often pretty, moth-like pubescent species, whose anterior wings are 
closely covered with projecting, clubbed hairs; marginal fringe of wings 
very long, that of hind wings longer; discal cell of hind wings open or want- 
ing; wings usually very long and narrow, more or less pointed; antennae at 
most as long as the fore wings, usually much shorter and usually thickened i 



Trichoptera. 47 

maxillary palpi of both sexes five-jointed, strongly hairy, their last joint 
neither bowed nor ringed; ocelli usually present. (Hydr6ptila.) 

HYDROPTfLIOE 

Rarely minute species; fore wings without or with solitary thickened projecting 
hairs; marginal fringe shorter than width of wing; antennae almost always 
longer than the fore wings 2 

2. Ocelli present; maxillary palpi with only weak hairs 3 

Ocelli absent 6 

3. Last joint of maxillary palpi divided into false ring-joints, curved and as long 

as the third and fourth joints together; front tibiae with no, two, or three 
spurs. (THYACOPHILIDM and HYDROPSYCHIDJE, part; Banks, 

1907). (Philopotamus.) PfflLOPOTAMIIXE 

Last joint of maxillary palpi not ringed, rarely curved, subequal to the other 
joints 4 

4. Front tibiae with one or no spur; middle tibiae with three or two spurs; maxillary 

palpi of male three-jointed, of female five-jointed, but of similar structure 
in the two sexes. (Anabolia, Limnephilus.) (PI. 9, figs. 195, 196). 

LIMNEPHiLHXE 

Front tibiae with two or three spurs, posterior tibiae with four spurs; maxillary 
palpi four- or five-jointed 5 

5. Maxillary palpi five-jointed, the basal two joints very short (Rhyacophila) 

RHYAcopHnmas 

Maxillary palpi of male four-jointed, of female five-jointed, the joints cylindrical, 
the second joint not short, the palpi of the two sexes similar. (Neurdnia, 
Phryganea.) . . '. PHRYGANEDX33 

6. Tibial spurs 3:4:4; maxillary palpi weakly hairy, five-jointed, the first and sec- 

ond joints very small, the last joint ringed and curved; antennae thickened. 
(HYDROPSY CHID fit, part; Banks, 1907.) (Polycentropus.) 

POLYCENTROPODID^ 
Usually two, never three, spurs on front tibiae 7 

7. Last joint of the five-jointed, scarcely hairy, maxillary palpi annulate and arcu- 

ate 8 

Last joint of the usually strongly hairy maxillary palpi neither ringed nor 
curved 9 

8. First vein from the discal cell of the fore wing forked; maxillary palpi long and 

thin. (Hydropsyche, Macronema) (PL 9, fig. 197) . . .HYDROPSYCHnXflj; 

First fork wanting in both fore and hind wings; first joint of the maxillary 

palpi small. (HYDROPSYCHIDM, part; Banks, 1907) (Psychomyia). 

PSYCHOMYinXE 

9. Both median and discal cells of fore wings present and closed; maxillary palpi 

five-jointed. (Heteroplectron.) CALAMOCEROTHXE 

Median cell of fore wings absent 10 

10. Maxillary palpi of the male three-jointed, of the female five-jointed, of different 
structure in the two sexes; antennae usually thick, hairy and with large basal 
joint; wings thickly hairy, discal cell present. (Brachycentrus.) 

SERICOSTOMATIIX33 
Maxillary palpi of both sexes five-jointed 11 



48 Key to Families of North American Insects. 

11. Discal cell of both wings absent, neuration of the two sexes usually different, 
apical veins few. (LEPTOCER1DM part; Banks, 1907) (Molanna). 



Discal cell of fore wings present ....................................... 12 

12. Middle tibiae with two spurs; discal cell of hind wings almost always open or 
absent, only the upper branch of the radial sector forked, only the first 
apical fork present; joints of maxillary palpi uniform; antennae long and 
slender. (Lept6cerus) ............................... LEPTOCERUXE 

Middle tibiae usually with four spurs; discal cell of hind wings closed, both 
branches of radial sector of fore wings forked, at least the first and second 
apical forks present; basal joint of antennae large. (Nerophilus.) 

ODONTOCERUXE 



ORDER LEPEDOPTERA. 

(PSYCHE, GLOSS AT A.) 

Rather large, sometimes small or very large insects; wings and 
body thickly clothed with scales that form a color pattern, these 
rarely restricted to certain portions or absent in a very few unusual 
forms; antennae long, many-jointed, variously modified; ocelli 
sometimes present; mouthparts suctorial, when not in use coiled 
under the head, the mandibles incorporated into an un jointed 
tongue, which may be occasionally wanting; prothorax small; 
wings large, membranous, similar, the fore pair somewhat longer; 
venation complete, but not complex, few crossveins; legs similar, 
tarsi ordinarily five-jointed; no cerci. Metamorphosis very great; 
larvee with biting mouth-parts, usually caterpillar-like, and with 
paired false-legs on some of the abdominal segments in addition to 
three thoracic pairs; Iarva3 almost without exception plant- 
feeders. Moths, Butterflies and Skippers. 

1. Antennas simple or variously modified (PI. 10, figs. 216, 224, 229), only rarely 
swollen at the tip, and in such cases a frenulum is present; most forms with 
a frenulum, the subcosta of the hind wing either but little arched at the 
base or there is a large area between it and the fore margin of the wing; 
wings at rest overlapping the abdomen or horizontally outspread; body 

often relatively stout. Moths. (HETEROCERA!) 2 

Antennae knobbed at the tip or thickened a little before the tip (PI. 10, figs. 
219, 220, 237), without pectinations, projecting processes or conspicuous 
arrangements of hairs; hind wings without a frenulum, but with the sub- 
costa strongly arched forward at the base; at least the fore wings erect 
when at rest. Butterflies and Skippers. (RHOPALOCERA, PAPILION- 
OlDEA.) 97 



Lepidoptera. 49 

*. Winged 3 

Wingless 55 

3. Hind wings with four or five radial veins (PI. 9, fig. 199), with at least ten veins 

besides anals, more than six veins arising from the discal cell; wings of 
similar shape, the membrane with minute spines (PI. 9, fig. 200) ; f orewing 

with a jugum. (JUGATE, MICROPTERYGOIDEA.) 4 

Hind wings with only one free radial vein (PI. 9, fig. 202) (very rarely two); 
with at most six veins arising from the discal cell; fore and bind wings dis- 
similar in shape, the frenulum very often present. (FRENATJ3.) 5 

4. Wings hardly wider than their fringe; expanse about half an inch; tibial spurs 

present. (Eriocephala, Epimartyria) (PI. 9, fig. 199) .ERIOCEPHALID^E 

Wings ample, fringe narrow; expanse over one inch; tibial spurs wanting. 

(Sthendpis, Hepialus.) HEPIALnXE 

5. Wings entire, not cleft nor divided into finger-shaped divisions, rarely the fore 

wings moderately cleft 6 

Wings, especially the hind ones deeply cleft, or divided into plume-like divisions 
(PI. 9, figs. 203, 204). Feather-wing moths 7 

6. Inner margin of fore wing and costal margin of hind wing narrowly folded and 

interlocking; fore wings at least four times as long as wide; at least the 
base of the hind wing, and usually a great part of the wings, hyaline; brightly 
colored, diurnal moths. (Melittia [M. satyriniformis, Squash-borer], Sesia 
[S. tipuliformis, Currant-borer; S. rutilans, Strawberry crown-moth], Bem- 
becia [B. marginata, Blackberry crown-borer], Sanninoidea [S. cxitiosa, 
Peach-borer]) (PL 10., figs. 221, 229, 232). (MGERIIDM.) . . .SESto-S 
Wings not interlocking at middle of margin, very rarely transparent, and if so, 
with broader fore wings 8 

7. Fore wings divided into two plumes, hind wings into three; small, delicate 

moths, usually prettily colored. (Oxyptilus, Platyptflia, Pterophorus) 

(PI. 9, fig. 203; PI. 10, figs. 225, 231) PTEROPHORIIXE 

Each wing divided into six plumes; a small silvery white moth. (Orneodes) 
(PI. 9, fig. 204) ORNEODIDjE 

8. Hind wings much broader than their fringe, never spear-shaped, and rarely 

trapezoidal with produced apex 9 

Hind wings tapering toward base and apex, without marked anal angle, or 
notched below the apex and trapezoidal; the fringe wider, or almost as wide, 
as the wing 58 

9. Underside of hind wing with a double series of enlarged and divergent scales 

along the cubital vein AgdistJnee of the PTEROPHORIDyE 

No such specialized scales 10 

10. Fore wings with two anal veins attaining the margin (PI. 9, fig. 205) 11 

Fore wings with only one anal vein attaining the margin, the first anal vestigial 

or represented by a fold and the third at most by a short spur (PI. 9, fig. 
202) 20 

11. Antennae plainly knobbed; hind wing with a large praecostal area; large showy 

moths of butterfly- or skipper-like appearance. (Castnia.). .CASTNIID.ffi 
Antennae tapering to tip 12 



50 Key to Families of North American Insects. 

12. Subcosta and radius of hind wing independent, parallel or arising separately; 

connected by a crossvein or rarely fused beyond the cell 13 

Subcosta of hind wing, arising from the cell (PI. 9, fig. 205) 18 

13. Subcosta and radius of hind wing connected by a strong crossvein near the 

middle of the cell or beyond (PL 9, fig. 211), independent and parallel. . .14 
Subcosta and radius of hind wing of a different conformation 17 

14. Fore wing with an accessory cell (PL 9, fig. 211) 15 

No accessory cell 16 

15. Wings bluntly pointed toward tips, strong; body heavy, far exceeding the hind 

wings when spread; palpi vestigial; usually large moths. (Prionoxystus 
[P. robinice, Carpenter-moth] Zeuzera [Z. pyrina, Leopard-moth] Cossus) 

(PL 9, fig. 211) COSSIIXE 

Wings broad, rather short and rounded, body short and slender, not exceeding 
the hind wings; palpi well developed; moderate-sized moths, with hairy 
body and usually of yellow or orange color. (Dalcerides.) . .DALCERID./E 

16. Tongue developed; palpi and wings scaled; moderately large moths with 

conspicuous color pattern. (Gingla.) CHALCOSHD^E 

Tongue absent; palpi small and hairy, or absent; wings hairy, but nearly 
destitute of scales; females wingless. Bag-worms. (Thyrid6pteryx [T. 
ephemeraformis, Bag-worm], Solen&bia, Chalia.) PSYCHHXaS 

17. Subcosta arising separately from the radius, running closely parallel to it to 

well beyond the end of the cell; base of the radius in that case either com- 
plete, showing as a short spur, or lost; small, rarely moderate-sized moths 
Diaphania [D.(=Margaronia) nitidalis, Pickle-moth], Lox6stege [L. simi- 
lalis, Garden webworm], Pyrausta, Pyralis [P.farinalis, Meal snout-moth], 
Crambus [Root webworms], Galleria [G. mellonella, Bee-moth], Mineola 
[M. indigeneUa, Leaf-crumpler], Ephestia [E. kuehniella, Mediterranean 
flour-moth], Plddia [P. interpunctella, Indian meal-moth]) (Including 
PYRAUSTIDM, GALLERI1DM, CRAMBIDM, PHYCITIDM.) (PL 

10, figs. 223, 230) PYRALIDIIXE 

Subcosta entirely independent of the radius, or connected by a weak crossvein, 
or one near the base of the wing, sharply divergent before the end of the 
cell 58 

18. Subcosta arising from near the middle of the cell; sometimes free also for a 

short distance near the base; moderately small, stout-bodied moths with 
rather small wings; larvae slug-like. (Euclea, Tortricidia, Packardia.) 

(EUCLEIDJE.) COCHLIDilDjE 

Subcosta arising near the tip of the cell 19 

19. Fifth branch of the radius long-stalked; pale-colored moths of moderate size 

and inconspicuous appearance, with stout, hairy body and small, furry wings. 

(Lagda, Megalop} ge.) MEGALOPYGIDJE 

Fifth branch of radius arising from the cell; small, dark, often brightly marked 
moths with smoothly scaled wings. (Acolfiithus, Triprocris, Harrisina.) 
(PL 9, fig. 205) PYROMORPHIL^ 



Lepidoptera. 5 1 

20. Hind wings with three anal veins, the first often fading out toward base. .21 
Hind wing with two anal veins or less, at most with a short spur of the first 

anal at the margin in the broad-winged forms 22 

21. Subcosta and radius in hind wings closely parallel, or fused beyond the end 

of the cell; small, rarely moderate-sized moths (see couplet 17). 

PYRALIDID^;, part 
Subcosta and radius strongly divergent from before the end of the cell. . . .58 

22. Large stout moths, almost always two inches or more in expanse, the hind 

wings rarely reaching beyond the middle of the abdomen; subcosta and 
radius of hind wing connected by a stong crossvein at, or rather before the 
middle of the cell, then closely parallel to the end of the cell or beyond; 
antennae generally thickened medially and often hooked or recurved at tip. 
Sphinx caterpillars; Hawk moths. (Phlegethontius, Sphinx, Phdlus, 

Deilephila.) SPHINGES 

Wings proportionately larger, subcosta and radius rarely connected by a 
strong cross vein, and if so, strongly divergent beyond it; antennae very 
rarely swollen apically 23 

23. Accessory cell (a small cell in front of the end of the discal cell) separated by 

a full-sized vein, or completely absent 24 

Accessory cell fused with the discal cell, but with a slight thickening at the 
line of separation; small species, less than one inch in expanse 58 

24. Cubitus of fore wings apparently three-branched (very rarely two-branched) . 25 
Cubitus of fore wings apparently four-branched 40 

25. Frenulum normal, well-developed 26 

Frenulum vestigial or absent, always less than one-fifteenth the length of the 

hind wings 33 

26. Subcosta and radius in hind wing sharply divergent from near the base; small, 

delicate moths with large wings. (Callizzia, Calledapteryx.) 

EPIPLEMID^E 

Subcosta and radius in hind wing fused or approximated for at least part of 
their course (PI. 10, fig. 228) 27 

27. Subcosta and radius in hind wing separate at extreme base, then close together 

or fused for a greater or less distance 28 

Subcosta and radius fused from base to beyond middle of hind wing, swollen 
at the base then rapidly diverging, very slender; rather small moths, usually 
of dull colors and with finely scaled wings, the fore pair narrow and the 
hind pair broad (see couplet 54) LITHOSHD^, part 

28. Stout-bodied moths, the width of the- thorax at least one-sixth the length of 

the fore wing 29 

Slender moths 32 

29. Subcosta moderately thickened and curved at the base 30 

A strong brace-vein from an angle near the base of the subcosta to the root of 

the frenulum (see couplet 32) GEOMETRID^E, part 

30. Cubitus in hind wing apparently three-branched 31 

Cubitus in hind wing apparently four-branched; medium-sized moths with 



52 Key to Families of North American Insects. 

elongated wings, the fore pair often widened at the basal angle. (Euthya- 

tira, Habrosyne). CYMATOPHORIDM THYATIRIDJE 

81. Tongue entirely absent; wings usually with clear spots before apex. (Apate* 

Iddes.) EUPTEROTIIXffi 

Tongue distinct, usually well-developed; wings fully scaled; moths of moderate 
size and inconspicuous colors, the body rather stout and densely hairy; 
hind tibiae with two pairs of stout spurs. "Prominent:?." (Datana [D. min- 
istra, Yellow-neck caterpillar] Heterocimpa, Schizftra [S. (=(Edemasia) 
concinna, Red-hump Apple-caterpillar]) (PI. 10, fig. 228) NOTODONTIDJE 

32. Spiracles (tympanic openings) at base of abdomen small and subdorsal; first 

anal vein usually partly present; subcosta in hind wing slightly bent at the 
base and but little enlarged, the humeral angle not expanded; last branch 
of media and first branch of cubitus stalked in the fore wing; brightly colored 
moths, usually with hyaline spots on the wings. (Phryganidia.) 

DIOPTER 

Tympanic opening almost always conspicuous and swollen, lateral; first anal 
vein absent in both wings; subcosta of hind wing sharply bent or much 
enlarged at the base, almost always with a brace-vein extending to the base 
of the frenulum; usually small or moderate sized moths of delicate form, 
with large, finely-scaled wings. (Paledcrita [P. vernata, Spring canker- 
worm], Alsophila [A. pometaria, Fall canker-worm], Tephroclystis, Rheu- 
maptera, Hydri6mena, Petr6phora, Edis, Sciagraphia, Cymatophora [C. 
ribearia, Currant span-worm].) GEOMETRIDjE 

33. Subcosta and radius in hind wings either fused for a very short distance, then 

sharply divergent, or separate from the base, or connected by a weak cross- 
vein; spiracles at base of abdomen inconspicuous 34 

Subcosta sharply divergent from the radius at the extreme base, then sharply 
bent and touching, fusing with, or closely parallel to it, or connected by a 
strong crossvein; spiracles at base of abdomen conspicuous, lateral (see 

couplet 32) A few GEOMETRIC^ 

84. Antennae not scaled beyond the basal joint. (SATURNOIDEA.) 35 

Antennae closely scaled on the upper side 36 

35. Two anal veins; first branch of media in fore wings fused or stalked with the 

radial stem; medium-sized or large moths with stout, hairy bodies and 
strong wings. (Anisdta, Cither&nia, Basildna. (CERATOCAMPlDsE) 

CITHERONIIDJE 

First branch of media separate from the radial stem; with only one anal vein, 
or else the upper discocellular vein (the crossvein at the end of the discal 
cell, between the last radial and the media) long and longitudinal; moderate, 
large or gigantic moths, with broad and usually strikingly colored wings. 
(Samia [S. cecropia, Cecropia moth], Callosamia [C. promethia, Promethia 
moth], Tropoea [T. luna, Luna moth], Telea [T. polyphemiis, Polyphemus 
moth], Autdmeris [A. io, lo moth].) SATURNIID. 

36. Subcosta of hind wing sharply divergent from the radius from close to its 

base 37 

Subcosta and radius parallel at base, connected by a weak crossvein 39 



Lepidoptera. 53 

37. Fourth and fifth branches of the radius stalked, widely separate from the third 

branch; moderate sized, rather stout-bodied, hairy moths, with the wings 
often notched or concave behind. (Cicinnus, Lacosdma.) 

LACOSOMATIDJE 

Fourth and fifth branches of the radius arising from the discal cell closely 
associated with the third branch .................................... 38 

38. Fifth branch of the radius stalked with the first branch of the media, or closely 

approximate at base and separate from the fourth branch of the radius. 



Fourth and fifth branches of the radius separate, the fourth sometimes stalked 
with the third ......................................... LONOMHDJE 

39. Frenulum about one-sixteenth the length of the hind wing. 

EUPTEROTlN^ of the EUPTEROTDXE 

Frenulum absent, or at most not exceeding the front basal angle of the wing. 
(Bdmbyx mbri, the silkworm.) .......................... BOMBY^CID^E 

40. Second cubital vein in the fore wing arising from the cell about a third-way 

out from the base, or even nearer the base; last radial vein stalked with 
the first medial; frenulum absent, the basal front angle of the hind wing 
expanded and furnished with a couple of short extra veins; stout-bodied 
moths of medium or rather large size. 'Malacosoma (= Clisiocampa) [M. 
americanum, Apple tent-caterpillar; M. disstria, Forest tent-caterpillar], 
T61ype.) .......................................... LASIOCAMPIDJE 

Second cubital vein of fore wing arising well beyond the middle of the cell; 
frenulum usually present .......................................... 41 

41. Subcosta and radius in hind wing strong and parallel to beyond the end of the 

cell, then approaching very close or fusing for a short distance; small or 
moderate-sized moths of slender form, the tip of the fore wing usually 
curving back. (Drepana, Oreta) (Including PLATYPTERYGID1E, 
AUZATIDM) ........................................ DREPANIIXE 

Subcosta and radius fusing before end of cell; or wholly independent ...... 42 

42. Fore wing with complete venation (twelve veins), all of the radials, medials 

and cubitals arising separately or with the second and third radials short- 
stalked; small moths of slender build, usually with pale, translucent spots 
on the wings. (Thyris, Dysddia.) ....................... THYREDIDjE 

Third and fourth radial veins, or the fourth and fifth long-stalked, or else 
with some veins absent ............................................ 43 

43. Subcosta apparently absent, fused with the radius except at the extreme base; 

rather small or medium-sized moths, often brightly colored, the wings small, 
especially the hind pair. (Scepsis, Ctenftcha) (ZYGsENIDJE of some 
authors) ............. ................................ SYNTOMID^ 

Subcosta and radius separating before the end of the cell ................ 44 

44. Antennae swollen or enlarged toward tip; rather small or medium-sized moths 

of brilliant colors, often dark, ornamented with large pale spots. (Alypia 
[A. octomaculata, Forester moth] Androldma) (PI. 10, fig. 227). 

AGARISTIDjE 
Antennae regularly tapering to apex .................................... 45 



54 Key to Families of North American Insects. 

45. Ocelli present, on the vertex close to the eyes 46 

Ocelli absent 53 

46. Subcosta and radius in hind wing connected by a strong crossvein 47 

Subcosta and radius in hind wing fused at least slightly and usually for some 

distance along the cell 48 

47. Tongue absent (see couplet 54) (LIP ARID JE) LYMANTRIUXE, part. 

Tongue present; palpi reaching far above the vertex, the third joint naked; a 

species is said to occur in North America Hi PSID.5S 

48. Fusion of the subcosta and radius extending to the middle of the cell, or beyond; 

stout-bodied moths of moderate size, with the wings usually marked in bold 
design of contrasting colors. Tiger moths, Woolly-bear caterpillars. (Utethe- 
isa, Estigmene, Apantesis, Halisiddta, Diacrisia (=Spilosoma) [D. virginica, 
White ermine moth], Hyphantria [H. cunea, Fall web-worm].) . .ARCTimflS 
Fusion of subcosta and radius falling short of the middle of the cell 49 

49. Fusion of subcosta and radius exceeding the basal fifth of the cell 50 

Fusion of subcosta and radius less than one-fifth the length of the cell, or 

imperfect 51 

50. Hind tarsus stout, not ordinarily over eight times as long as thick; tibial spurs 

often reduced; subcosta greatly swollen at base (see couplet 48). 

ARCTIID^;, part 

Hind tarsus more slender; tibial spurs long; subcosta basally not more than 
twice as thick as the radius (see couplet 52) NOCTUTD^), part 

51. Swollen spiracles at base of abdomen (tympanic bullse) enlarged dorsally, 

visible from above as two rounded elevations on the first abdominal seg- 
ment; moderate, or rather large, gaily colored moths, often with metallic 

tints and bold markings. (Gnophaela.) PERICOPEXE 

Tympanic bullae inconspicuous 52 

52. White or yellow moths with the palpi not reaching the middle of the smoothly 

scaled front; cubitus four-branched in both wings. (Haplda.) 

ARCTIID.S;, part 

Palpi longer; cubitus in hind wing three-branched, or ground color of wings 
gray; stout moths, generally of sombre brown or gray color, the hind wings 
sometimes enlivened by large pale or colored patches; a very extensive 
family. Owlet Moths, Moths of cut-worms, army-worms, etc. (Apatela 
Hadena, Prodenia, Laphygma [L. frugiperda, Fall army-worm], Agrdtis 
[several common cut-worms], Peridrdma [P. saucia, Variegated cut-worm], 
Helifiphila [H. unipuncta, Army-worm], Xylina [X. antennata, Green fruit- 
worm], Papaipema [P. nitela, Stalk-borer], Heli&this [//. obsoleta, Corn 
ear-worm and Cotton boll-worm], Alabama (= Aletia) [A. argillacea, Cotton- 
worm], Catocala.) (PI. 9, fig. 202) (Including NYCTEOLIDtf.) 

NOCTUIDJE 

53. Fore wing with raised tufts of scales; subcosta usually fused with the radius 

to near the middle of the cell, but free at base; small moths with rather 
narrow fore wings, and short, rounded hind wings. (Celama, N61a.) (PL 

11, fig. 233.) NOLIIXS; 

Fore wing without raised tufts of scales, smoothly scaled throughout 54 



Lepidoptera. 55 

54. Subcosta and radius in hind wing fused for a point about the middle of the cell, 

or connected by a crossvein; small or moderate-sized moths of dull, incon- 
spicuous colors, the females of many species partly or entirely wingless. 
(Hemerocampa (= Notolophus, Orgyia) [H. leucostigma, White-marked 
tussock moth], Olene, Forth etria (=0cneria, Liparis) [P. dispar, Gypsy 
moth], Euproctis [E. chrysorrhoea, Brown-tail moth]) (LIPARIDJE). 

LYMANTRIID^ 

Subcosta and radius fused from the base to the middle of the cell; rather small 
moths, usually of dull colors, and with finely scaled wings, the fore pair 
narrow and the hind pair broad. (Hypoprepia, Crambidia) (PI. 10, fig. 226) . 

LITHOSinXffi, part 

55. Legs absent, adults never leaving the cocoon; females. (See couplet 16). 

PSYCHIIXS;, part 
Legs normally developed 56 

56. Cocoon seed-like, with a valve at one end (being formed of the larval case), 

the moth normally not leaving it; females (see couplet 16) .PSYCHID^E.part 
Cocoon normally felted, of the larval hair, or rudimentary and underground. 5 7 

57. Abdomen closely scaled or spined, or with bristly, dark gray hair; a few females 

(see couplet 32) GEOMETKED.35, part 

Abdomen smoothly clothed with fine, light, woolly hair; moth not normally 
leaving the cocoon, which is composed of the larval hair; a few females 
(see couplet 54) LYMANTRIIDJJ, part 

58. Fore wing with three or four unbranched veins only 59 

Fore wing with some branched veins in addition to unbranched ones 60 

59. A large eyecap present. (Op6stega.) OPOSTEGID. 

No eyecap (see couplet 80) HELIOZELID^, part 

60. A well-developed eyecap, fringed with overlapping scales; labial palpi small; 

cell slender or absent 61 

Eyecap not developed, at most with the first antennal joint large, a little hol- 
lowed on the inner side and fringed with a single row of bristles 62 

61. Discal cell very small, less than a tenth of the area of the wing, or wholly absent; 

wing membrane prickly (PI. 9, fig. 200) (Nepticula, Ectcedemia). 

NEPTICULID^E 

Discal cell larger; wing membrane not prickly. (Proleucoptera, Phyllocmstis, 
Bucculatrix) LYONETHDJE 

62. Maxillary palpi twice as long as the eye, folded, conspicuous; living as larvae 

in plants of the genus Yucca. Yucca Moths. (Pronftba, Proddxus.) (PI. 

9, fig. 207.) PRODOXnXE 

Maxillary palpi shorter than the eye, or porrect 63 

63. Palpi short, at most barely reaching the middle of the front; tongue absent; 

covering of thorax and tibiae dense and hairy (see couplet 15). 

COSSIDJE, part 
Of a different conformation 64 

64. Covering of thorax consisting of hairs, some of them broadened at tips, also 

similar on palpi and legs; palpi large and usually different in the two sexes, 



56 Key to Families of Nort American Insects. 

wings scaled; venation complete, with the base of the media preserved. 

(Anaphora.) ANAPHORiN,E of the TINEID^ 

Thorax, at least, scaled or slender, palpi and front and middle tibiae also in 
the majority of cases; often minute moths with wings tapering at both ends, 65 

65. Hind wing with a well marked anal angle, and rounded or somewhat pointed 

apex, not strongly concave below it; when narrower than fore wings, with 

three well developed anals W- 8 J 

Of a different conformation 66 

66. Hind wing tapering toward both base and apex, much narrower than its own 

fringe, fore wing much broader, but also lanceolate 67 

Hind wing of variable size with produced apex, strongly concave below apex, 
and again produced more or less on the third medial and first cubital, with 
well marked anal angle. (Gnorimdschema, Ypsolophus [ Y. ligukllus, 
Palmer-worm], Sitotrdga [S. cerealella, Angumois grain-moth], Phthormiaea 
[P. operculdla, Potato-tuber moth], Gelechia) (PI. 9, fig. 209). 

GELECHHDjE 

67. Maxillary palpi present and folded in repose 68 

Maxillary palpi obsolete, or three- jointed and porrect 70 

68. Head extremely rough, with bristling vestiture 69 

Head smoothly scaled, except narrowly behind. (Acrolepia) ACROLEPHD^ 

69. Wing membrane prickly (PI. 9, fig. 200), first branch of the radius in hind wing 

much stronger than the base of the main stem of the radius, and appearing 

as a basal fork of the subcosta (see couplet 82) ADELID./E, part 

Wing membrane not prickly; first branch of radius in hind wing no stronger 
than the basal portion of the radial stem, well out from the base, connecting 
the subcosta and radius, which are closely parallel toward the base (see 
couplet 84) A few TINEIIXE 

70. Head very rough and bristly on both vertex and face; second joint of palpus 

with lateral bristles toward tip. (Tenaga.) TINELD^, part 

Lower part of face, at least, smoothly scaled; palpi without bristles 71 

71. Fore wing with at most four veins, either free or stalked, to the costa from the 

cell; with five or six veins running to the inner margin (fifth branch of the 
radius running to the outer margin (see couplet 90). 

YPONOMEUTID^E, part 

Fore wing with five veins running to the costa from the cell, or with only 
three or four to the inner margin (fifth radial running to the costa) 72 

72. Vertex rough-bristled 73 

Vertex smooth-scaled, or with a few erect scales behind 75 

73. Accessory cell (in front of and beyond the discal cell) very large, extending 

nearly halfway to the base of the wing; fore wing with heavy spinules on 
base of the subcosta and base of the cell. (Tischeria, Coptotriche) (PI. 9. 

fig. 212) TISCHERinXE 

Accessory cell small, or more often absent; whig membrane not prickly. . . .74 

74. Anal vein in fore wing forked at the base; costa of hind wing not lobed. (Be- 

dellia.) LYONETIIDJE, part 



Lepidoptera. 57 

Anal vein in fore wing simple; costa of hind wing strongly lobed, with the 
obscure basal parts of the subcosta and radius closely parallel to the edge 
of the lobe. (Lithocolletes, Gracilaria, Ornix.) GRACILARIID^ 

75. Subcosta and radius in hind wing nearly straight and parallel toward base, 

usually connected by a distinct, but weak crossvein; rarely, when subcosta 
is very short, this vein enters the costa beyond the tip of the subcosta,' 
when the costa is lobed, with the subcosta fairly straight, and ending at 

the commencement of the concave portion 7ft 

Subcosta and radius sharply divergent at base; first radial vein, when traceable, 
appearing as a basal fork of the subcosta, oblique, short and heavy, and the 
radial stem running nearly through the axis of the wing; or with the sub- 
costa and radius both obscure, closely parallel to the basal lobe of the costa, 
and the radius functionally replaced by the base of the media 7T 

76. Palpi upturned to the vertex. (Mompha, Cosmopteryx, Coleophora [C- 

malivorella), Pistol case-bearer; C. fletcherella, Cigar case-bearer]) (PI. 9^ 

fig. 208) COSMOPTERYGnXE 

Palpi minute, drooping. (Heliodines.) HELIODINnX3 

77. Maxillary palpi present, porrect (see couplet 74) GRACILARIID^;, part 

Maxillary palpi absent 78- 

78. Cubital stem in hind wing at least two-branched; palpi usually smoothly 

upturned to vertex; hind tibiae loosely hairy. (Elachista.) 

ELACHISTID.33 
Cubital stem in hind wing simple, free; no cell, or with very short palpi. . . .79^ 

79. Basal joint of antenna? broadened with overlapping scales (a vestige of an 

eyecap); tongue weak; cubitus in hind wing simple; hind tibiae with a regular 
series of bristles. (Phyllocnistis, part) (see couplet 61) LYONETHDJE, part 
Basal joint of antennae simple, or with a slight comb of bristles SO- 
SO. Palpi usually hanging, if upturned, not reaching the middle of the front. 

(Heliozela, Antispila, Coptodisca, Cycloplasis.) HELIOZELID./?? 

Palpi moderately long and usually slender, upturned in life (see couplet 74). 

GRACILARIID^ 

81. Second branch of the cubitus in the fore wing arising less than two-thirds way 

out of the cell; rather or quite small moths, the fore wings frequently 
more or less truncate or faintly excised at the tip. Leaf-rollers. (Ole- 
threfttes, Eucosma, Spilondta (= Tmetocera) [S. occllana, Bud-moth} 
Ancylis [A. comptana, Strawberry leaf-roller], EnarmSnia [E. prunivora f 
Lesser apple-worm], Carpocapsa (=Cydia) [C. pomonella, Codling-moth],. 

Archips, Tortrix.) Most TORTRICIDJE 

Second cubital vein in fore wing arising further out of the cell 82 

82. Wing membrane prickly; subcosta in hind wing with a strong basal fork, or 

considerably swollen at base; radius and subcosta usually sharply divergent 
from the base; antennae often extremely long; vertex very rough. (Incur- 

varia, Adela, Cyane.) ADELDXflS, part 

Wing membrane not prickly; antennae never much longer than the fore wing* 
first radial rarely as strong as the other veins, and when distinct, separated 
from the base of the wing by several times its length 8$ 



58 Key to Families of North American Insects. 

SS. Maxillary palpi four- or five-jointed, folded 84 

Maxillary palpi three-jointed or vestigial, projecting 85 

84. Head only slightly rough behind. (AcrolSpia.) ACROLEPDDJE, part 

Vertex with long, bristly vestiture. (Tinea [T. pellionella, Clothes-moth], 
Tineok [T. biselliella, Clothes-moth], Xylesthia, Setom6rpha) (PL 9, fig. 

201) TINEIDJE 

85. First and second branches of the media both absent in the hind wing. (Car- 

posina.) TORTRICID^, part 

First branch of the media present in the hind wing 86 

86. Labial palpi with bristles on each side of the second joint, or the vertex and 

the front both with extremely long, rough vestiture, and the second joint 
of the palpi heavily tufted and the third long (see couplet 84). 

TINEID./E, part 

Labial palpi without bristles; head with short, fairly smooth vestiture, or 
third joint of palpi inconspicuous 87 

87. Radius and first medial vein in hind wing close together or stalked 88 

Radius and first medial vein in hind wing widely separate at base, at least half 

as far apart as at margin , .... 93 

88. Palpi as long as the head, with the second joint triangularly scaled, third less 

than half as long; normally projecting 89 

Palpi upturned to beyond middle of front, often far beyond vertex, third joint 
more than half as long as second and upturned 90 

89. Fourth and fifth radial veins separate. (Phaldnia.) 

PHALOXIINjE of the TORTRICIDJE 
Fourth and fifth radial veins stalked, to costa. (Anarsia <? {A. lineaiella, 

Peach twig-borer].) GELECHIID^E, part 

SO. Veins of fore wing all present; fifth radial vein running to outer margin; wings 
very frequently ornamented with series of dots contrasting with the ground 
color. (Atteva, Yponomeftta, Chorefttis, Argyresthia.) 

YPONOMEUTIIXffi, part 

Fifth branch of radius in fore wing running to the costa, or lost 91 

91. Hind wing lanceolate (tapering toward base and apex) narrower than the fore 

wing (see couplet 76) COSMOPTERYGIIXE 

Hind wing wider than the fore wing, not lanceolate 92 

92. Fore wing with all veins from cell arising separately; radius and first medial 
vein in hind wing long-stalked. (Stendma, Brachilfima.) (XYLORYC- 

TID&) STENOMffijE 

Fore wing with the fourth and fifth radial veins stalked; hind wing trapezoidal 
and usually wider, strongly rounded out at the end of the third medial and 

first cubital (see couplet 66) A few GELECHIID^ 

$3. Second radial vein arising at the apex of the cell; third medial and cubitals 
also closely crowded from lower angle; male usually with strong sexual 
modifications; five radials extending to the costa. (Valentinia, Holcocera, 

Drydpe.) BLASTOBASID>E 

Second radial arising distinctly before the apex of the cell, well away from the 
origin of the third radial 94 



Lepidoptera. 59 

94. Five veins extending from the cell to the costa in fore wing ............. 95 

Four veins from cell to costa in fore wing, the fifth radial ending decidedly 

below wing-tip ................................................... 96 

95. Second branch of media in hind wing arising decidedly nearer to the first 

than the third medial. (Ethmia.) ........................ ETHMIOXE 

Second medial vein in hind wing arising nearer the third medial, or rarely mid- 
way between the first and third. (Agnepteryx, Depressaria, Epicallima.) 

CECOPHORUXE, part 

96. Fourth and fifth radial veins stalked; ocelli absent or vestigial (see couplet 

95) ........................................... CECOPHORID./E, part 

All veins in fore wing arising separately, if the fourth and fifth radials are 
rarely stalked, the ocelli are large (see couplet 90) .YPONOMEUTID^E, part 

97. Radius in fore wing five-branched, all arising from the discal cell; eyes strongly 

lashed in front; antennae separated at base by a distance greater than half 
the width of eyes, usually hooked at tip; small, rarely rather large, stout- 
bodied butterflies of rapid, erratic flight. Skippers (Pamphila, Nisoniades, 
Eftdamus, Megathymus.) (PI. 10, figs. 213, 219, 237) ..... HESPERIED^ 
Fore wings with some of the radials stalked or absent; eyes rarely lashed; 
antennae closer together, the antennal club never pointed and recurved 
at tip ........................................................... 98 

S8. Front pair of legs, at least in the male, more or less strikingly different from 
the other pairs; usually not used for walking; the claws of their tarsi, when 
present, never toothed nor split .................................... 99 

Front legs like the other pairs, or if slightly reduced in size and structure, with 
the claws toothed or bifid ........................................ 108 

39. Front tarsus without claws in either sex (PI. 10, figs. 217, 218); front legs 
much reduced in size in both sexes, their tarsi in the male with only one 
joint; in the female usually with five joints ......................... 100 

Front tarsus of female with claws, that of the male sometimes with a single 
claw; front legs never much reduced in size. (PL 10, figs 214, 215.) . . . .106 

100. Discal cell of hind wings closed ...................................... 101 

Discal cell of hind wings open ..................................... 105 

101. Front foot of female ending in a corrugated knob; subcostal vein in fore 

wing forked at the extreme base; antennae not scaled above; generally large 
butterflies with rather bold contrasting coloration; mainly tropical. ( Anosia 
(=Danais) [A. archippus, Milkweed-butterfly]) (PL 10, fig. 235). 

(EUPLCEID&) LYMNADIDJE 

Front tarsus of female present, though more or less abbreviated. (PL 10, 
fig. 218.) ....................................................... 102 

102. Fore wings twice as long as broad .................................... 103 

Fore wings much less than twice as long as broad ...................... 104 

103. Antenna? clothed with scales, at least above; front tarsus of female four- 

jointed; wings opaque; medium-sized, brightly colored butterflies with 
elongate oval wings; mainly tropical. (Apostraphia, Heliconius.) 



Antennas naked, wings often in great part translucent and destitute of scales; 
wings elongate, oval; mainly tropical. (Dircenna, Ithomia.) 



60 Key to Families of North American Insects. 

104. Some of the veins at the base of the fore wing greatly swollen; usually small 

butterflies, rarely rather large; frequently of brownish color with yellowish 
eyespots or ringed marks (Cercyonis (=Satyrus), Ccenonympha, En6dia 

(=Debu), Cissia.) (PL 10. fig. 218.) AGAPETID^ 

Veins not swollen at base of fore wing; large tropical species with very broad 
wings, above with deep, rich colors, below with eye-spots and intricate lines;, 
tropical, hi the United States only as accidental visitors. (Caltgo.) 

BRASSOLID^ 

105. Hind wings with a cradle-like depression along the inner margin in which 

the abdomen rests; large species, usually with brilliant metallic blue c^lor; 

tropical. (M6rpho.) MORPHOUXE 

Hind wings without structure of this sort; usually moderate-sized species 
without brilliant blue coloration; many common brightly colored butter- 
flies. (Argynnis, Brenthis, Phyciddes, Polygdnia (=Grapta), Euvanessa 
(= Vanessa), Vanessa (=P</ramm),Basilarchia (= Limenitis), Ansea.) (PL 
10, figs. 217, 236) NYMPHALIDjE 

106. Palpi very long, porrect, from one-fourth to one-half as long as the body 

and thickly hairy. (Hypatus.) LffiYTHEID^E 

Palpi not elongated, of ordinary size 107 

107. Subcosta in hind wing giving off a spur at the base, the humeral vein. 

(Calephelis, Polystigma) (PL 10, fig. 215) (RIODINIDJE, ERYClNIDsE) 

LEMONED^ 

Subcosta in hind wing without such a spur at the base; first branch of the 
media almost always arising at or near the apex of the discal cell; no humeral 
vein in hind wing; generally small, delicate species, the antennae ringed with 
white; often brightly colored and with very slender, tail-like appendages 
on the hind wings. (Thecla, Chrysophanus ["Coppers"], Lycaena ["Blues"]) 
(PL 10, fig. 214) (RURALIDM) LYOENIDJE 

108. All tarsal claws bifid; anterior tibiae without pads; hind wing with two well- 

developed anal veins; medium-sized or rather small butterflies with broad 
wings; typically yellowish or white with blackish marginal markings. 
(P6ntia (=Pieris) [P. rapes, Cabbage butterfly], Eurymus (=Colias} ["Yel- 
lows"], Eurema (= Terias.) PIERIDJE 

Tarsal claws large, not toothed or bifid; anterior tibiae with pads; hind wing 
with only one anal vein 109 1 

109. Radius in fore wing four-branched; discal cell in hind wing not connected 

to the anal vein by a crossvein; medium-sized butterflies with white ground- 
color on wings, marked with dusky and usually with a red eye-spot on hind 

wing; alpine species. (Parnassius.) PARNASSIID^ 

Radius in fore wing five-branched; anal crossvein present; hind wing usually 
with a tail-like prolongation; ground-color of wings black; large, showy 
butterflies with conspicuous, contrasting color pattern. Swallow-tail 
butterflies. (Papfflo, Laertias, Iphiclides) (PL 9, fig. 210). 

PAPILIONIDJE 



Diptera. 61 



ORDER DIPTERA 

(ANTLIATA, HALTERATA, HALTER1PTERA, 
HAUSTELLATA.) 

Minute to moderate-sized, rarely large insects, usually with 
good powers of flight; the hind wings replaced by small knobbed 
structures (halteres): head usually vertical, freely movable; 
antennae variable, frequently three- jointed and provided with a 
sensory bristle (style or arista); mouth-parts suctorial; both the 
prothorax and metathorax small and fused with the large meso- 
thorax; wings membranous, veins and crossveins not numerous; 
legs usually alike, the tarsi regularly five-jointed. Metamor- 
phosis complete, the larvae almost always legless grubs or maggots, 
frequently with the head retracted and indistinct; pupae with the 
appendages more or less adherent, the body sometimes entirely 
encased in a seed-like capsule (puparium) . Food-habits variable. 
Flies, Mosquitoes, Gnats, Midges. 

1. Antenrue generally longer than the thorax, usually composed of from eight to 

sixteen free joints (PI. 12, figs. 262, 266, 272) and rarely with a differentiated 
style or bristle; anal cell widely open, rarely narrowed in the margin of the 
wing, discal cell usually absent, second vein often forked; calypter absent; 
palpi usually elongate, hanging downward and comprising four or five joints; 

body very rarely with bristles. (NEMATOCERA.) 2 

Antenna? usually three-jointed, the third joint however often complex (PI. 12, 
fig. 283) or bearing a differentiated style (PI. 12, fig. 300) or arista (PI. 12, 
fig. 301) ; anal cell distally narrowed or closed, sometimes very short or even 
absent, discal cell usually present, second vein never furcate; palpi short, 
projecting forward, never with more than two joints. (BRACHYCERA.) . 17 

2. At least nine veins reach the margin of the wing, discal cell often present, second 

and fourth veins forked 3 

Less than nine veins terminate in the margin of the wing, no discal cell 9 

3. Costa continuing around the hind margin of the wing; ocelli almost always 

wanting 4 

Costa much thinned beyond the tip of the wing; a single pad between the tarsal 
claws; ocelli present; males holoptic; wings usually spotted. (Rhyphus, 
Olbiogaster) (PI. 12, figs. 276, 288) (ANISOPID^E, PHRYNEIDffi). 

RHYPHID./E 

4. Veins bare or nearly so, if hairy the mesonotum has a V-shaped suture; legs 

very long and slender; body and wings elongate; males dichoptic, i. e. the 

eyes not meeting above 5 

Veins, including the hind margin, very hairy or scaly; body hairy or scaly; 
mesonotum without a transverse suture ... ... 6 



62 Key to Families of North American Insects. 

5. Mesonotum without a transverse suture; second vein strongly arched forward. 

(Dixa) DIXID^E 

Mesonotum with a more or less distinct suture; female with a conical ovipositor. 
Crane-flies, Daddy-long-legs 7 

6. Wings ovate or pointed, held folded roof-like against the body, veins very hairy; 

tibiae without terminal spurs; small species. Moth-flies. (Psychdda, 

Pericoma) (PI. 12, fig. 263) PSYCHODHX& 

Wings narrow, not thus folded against the body; veins scaly; tibia? with terminal 
spurs; antennae of the males usually feathered with long hairs. Mosquitoes. 
Culex [C. quinquefasciatus, Dengue-fever and Filaria mosquito], Aedes 
[A. calopus(Stegomyiafasciata), Yellow-fever mosquito], Anopheles [A. 
quadrimaculatus, Malaria mosquito]) (PL 12, fig. 267) CULICID./E 

7. Suture of mesonotum distinctly V-shaped; two anal veins present 8 

Mesonotal suture not distinctly V-shaped, but incomplete or curved; one anal 

vein present. (Bittacomorpha, Ptych6ptera) (PL 12, fig. 269) (LIRI- 
OPEIDM) PTYCHOPTERmE 

8. Last joint of palpi whiplash-like, much longer than the three preceding together; 

antennae with rarely more than thirteen joints; auxiliary vein ending in the 
first vein by an abrupt curvature at the tip, not connected with the first 
by a crossvein. (Tipula, Pachyrhina, Cten6phora) (PL 11, fig. 240; PL 

12, fig. 273) TIPULIDyE 

Last joint of the palpi shorter or not much longer than the two preceding to- 
gether; antennae six- to sixteen-jointed, rarely more; auxiliary vein usually 
ending in the costa and connected with the first vein by a distinct crossvein. 
(Limndbia, Eri6ptera, Limn6phila, Trich6cera) (including CYLINDRO- 
TOMHXE) LIMNOBmXE 

9. Antennas composed apparently of two joints and a terminal nine- or ten-jointed 

arista; a small but broad second basal cell present; rare small species. 

(Orphnephila) (PI. 12, fig. 284) ORPHNEPHILHX 

Outer part of the antennae not formed like an arista; second basal cell absent, 
or, if present, narrow 10 

10. Wings with a secondary neuration like a fine network of creased lines; slender 

long-legged species. (Bibiocephala, Blepharocera) (PL 12, fig. 277) 

(LIPONEURIDM) BLEPHAROCERID^ 

Wings without such secondary neuration 11 

11. Second basal cell present; antennae usually shorter than the thorax, rather 

stout, without constrictions between the joints; eyes of the male often large, 
ocelli almost always present. (Bibio, Dflophus, Plecia) (PL 11, fig. 241; 

PL 12, fig. 266) (including PACHYNEURIDM) BffilONID^E 

Second basal cell wanting 12 

12. Antennae shorter than the thorax, rather stout, composed of ten or eleven 

closely united joints, never feathery; eyes of males meeting above; body 
stout, legs strong; anterior veins strong, posterior veins weak. Buffalo- 
gnats, Black-flies. (Simulium) (PL 11, fig. 243; PL 12, fig. 272) (MEL- 

USINIDJE) SIMULIID^ 

Antennas long and slender, the joints longer than broad, rarely (Ceroplatus) 
the antennae are flattened; body slender IS 



Diptera. 63 

13. Tibiae with apical spurs, coxae usually long; three or two ocelli almost always 

present; eyes separated. Fungus-gnats. (Mycetophila, Macrocera, My- 
comyia (=SbpAi7o), Ceroplatus) (PI. 12, fig. 280) (FUNGIVORID&). 

MYCETOPHiLIDjE 

Tibiae usually without apical spurs; often no ocelli; coxae at most moderately 
long U 

14. Costa continuing around the hind margin of the wing; wings almost always 

finely hairy and usually with three longitudinal veins, the last forked, and 
without apparent cross veins; eyes usually separated; minute, delicate 
species. Gall-gnats. (Cecidomyia, Mayetiola [M. destructor, Hessian fly], 
Dasyneura, Lasioptera, Contarrnia [C. tritici, Wheat midge; C. (=Diplosis) 
pyrivora, Pear midge].) (PI. 11, fig. 242; PL 12, fig. 262). 

(ITON1D1D&) CECIDOMYIID^ 

Costa not or but weakly continued on the hind margin, more than three veins 
present; eyes usually meeting above in the males 15 

15. Antennal joints more or less constricted, often feathered and bushy hi the 

male, six to fifteen in number; wings usually narrow; eyes kidney-shaped 
or oval; ocelli wanting or vestigial. Midges, Gnats, Punkies. Ceratopdgon 
[Punkies], Chironomus, Orthocladius, Tanypus) (Including ERETMOP- 
TERID^E and STENOXENID^) (TENDIPEDIDfl}. 

CHIRONOMIDJE 

Antennal joints rarely constricted and at most verticillate, i. e. furnished with 
whorls of loose hairs; wings usually more oval; eyes kidney-shaped, meeting 
on the vertex; ocelli distinct 16 

16. Antennal joints longer than broad; hind margin of the wing slightly thickened; 

tibial spurs distinct; eyes narrow above the front. (Sciara, Lestremia, 

Campylomyza) (LYCORIIDM) SCIARID^ 

Antennal joints shorter than broad; hind margin of the wing not thickened; 
eyes relatively broad above the front. (Scat6pse, Aspistes.) 

SCATOPSIDjE 

17. Empodia developed pulvilliform, that is, three nearly equal pads under the 

tarsal claws (PI. 12, fig. 261); head and thorax without strong bristles. 

(EREMOCH^TA) 18 

Empodia wanting or represented by a bristly hair, therefore only two tarsal 
pads (PI. 12, fig. 259); bristles often well developed; third antennal joint 
never truly annulated 25 

18. Third joint of the antennae complex, annulated into four to eight apparent 

segments, or the antennae more than five- jointed 19 

Third joint of the antennae simple, not composed of rings 23 

19. No vein on the hind margin of the wings, prefurca (i. e. the petiole of the second 

and third veins) arising opposite the base of the small and anteriorly placed 
discal cell, anterior veins usually crowded near the costa, the other veins 
faint; scutellum often armed. (Stratiomyia, Sargus, Nemotelus) (PI. 11, 

fig. 244) STRATIOMYIID^B 

Costa continuing around the hind margin of the wing, prefurca longer (short 
only in Pantophthalmidae), veins not crowded forward, the fork of the third 
vein usually enclosing the tip of the wing, five posterior cells 



4 Key to Families of North American Insects. 

20. Calypteres small or vestigial; head not hemispherical, the occiput convex. .21 
Calypteres conspicuous; third antennal joint composed of four to eight annuli; 
head widely hemispherical; females bloodsucking. Horse-flies, Gad-flies. 
(Tabanus, Chrysops, Sflvius) (PL 11, fig. 247; PL 12, figs. 258, 283). 

TABANID^E 

21. A slight spur on the middle tibiae only; second submarginal cell widely trian- 
gular; fourth posterior cell closed; gigantic, tropical flies. (Pantopthalmus) 

(PL 11, fig. 246) (ACANTHOMER1DM} PANTOPHTHALMIDJE 

At least the middle tibiae with evident spurs; second submarginal cell not wide, 

fourth posterior cell usually open 22 

22. Face flat or produced, the facial orbits and the cheeks not sutured; eyes of 
the male not meeting; antennae of Rhachicerus pectinate and with about 
thirty divisions. (Xyl6phagus, Rhachicerus) (PL 12, figs. 286, 290) (includ- 
ing RHACHICERlDfi.) (ERINNIDJE) XYLOPHAGIDJE 

Facial orbits and cheeks separated from the central part; eyes of males meeting; 
scutellum of Coenomyia spined. (Coenomyia, Arthrfipeas) (PL 12, fig. 
287) CCENOMYIIIXE 

23. At least the posterior tibiae with spurs; costa encompassing the wing margin, 

anterior crossvein distinct; calypteres vestigial. (Leptis, Chrysopila, Sym- 
phoromyia) (PL 12, fig. 291). 

(LEPT1DJE=LEPTID1D) RHAGIONUXE 

Tibiae with short or no spurs: costa greatly thinned beyond the tip of the wing, 
anterior crossvein usually absent or located near the base of the discal cell, 24 

24. Head very small as compared with the greatly hump-backed body; calypteres 

inflated; posterior veins not parallel with the hind margin of the wing; 
eyes of both sexes broadly contiguous. (Acrocera, Opsebius, OncSdes, 
Eul6nchus) (PL 11, fig. 245) (ACROCERID&, HENOPIDJE, ONCOD- 

1DM) CYRTDXE 

Head as wide as the depressed thorax; calypteres vestigial; posterior veins 
parallel with the hind margin, first basal cell very long, its forward border 
continued obliquely across the wing as a "diagonal vein." (Hirmoneura, 
Rhynchocephalus) (PL 12, fig. 295) NEMISTRINIDJE 

25. Anal cell much longer than the second basal, either open, or closed in or near 

the margin of the wing, basal cells relatively long, third vein almost always 

forked 26 

Anal cell when present shorter, closed some distance from the wing-margin, 
if long and acute the third vein is not forked; small crossvein never formed, 31 

26. Vertex plane or convex, the eyes not bulging, eyes of males often meeting; 

legs not robust 27 

Vertex sunken, the eyes bulging and never contiguous; wing- veins numerous; 
often large species with strong legs 30 

27. Small crossvein present (PL 12, fig. 258, p. c. v.), five posterior cells; abdomen 

rather long and tapering 28 

Small crossvein absent, four or three posterior cells, if five posterior cells pres- 
ent the extra one is due to an extra vein bisecting the third ; abdomen usually 
oval . . ... 29 



Diptera. 65 

28. Fourth vein ending before the wing-tip; at least the scutellum bristly; antennae 

with a very short style; eyes separated; palpi broadened at tip. (Apiocera, 

Rhaphiomydas) APIOCERIDJE 

Fourth vein ending beyond the tip of the wing; body usually furry rather than 
bristly; palpi not broadened apically. (Thereva, Psilocephala, Tabuda) 
(PI. 12, fig. 293) THEREVnXffi 

29. Proboscis long and thin; body usually furry and stout though rarely (Sys- 

tropus) extremely slender and bare; a small style usually present; fourth 
vein ending beyond tip of the wing. (Anthrax, ExoprosSpa, Bombylius, 
Geron, Systropus.) (PI. 11, fig. 249; PI. 12, figs. 265, 294) . . BOMBYLIIIXE 
Proboscis hidden; body bare; antennae without a style; fourth vein ending at 
the tip of the whig. (Scen6pinus, Pseudatrichia) (PI. 11, fig. 248). 

(OMPHRALIDM) SCENOPINID^ 

30. Body without bristles; fourth vein curving forward, neuration complex, pre- 

furca (the stalk of the second and third veins) short; antennae with a clubbed 
style; proboscis with fleshy expanded tip, palpi vestigial. (Mydas, Lepto- 

mydas) (PI. 12, fig. 298) (MYDASIDfi) MYDAUXE 

Body usually with bristles, face bearded; fourth vein not curving forward, 
neuration normal, prefurca long; proboscis adapted for piercing, not fleshy, 
palpi usually prominent. Robber-flies. (Leptogaster, CyrtopSgon, Laph- 
ria, Erax, Proctacanthus) (PI. 12, fig. 264) ASILIDvE 

31. No frontal suture; anal crossvein usually reflexed; when the anal cell is pointed 

the arista is terminal and the calypteres and alula are not prominent . . 32 
If the anal crossvein is reflexed a frontal suture is evident, if the frontal lunule 
is obscure the anal cell is longer than the second basal cell; arista almost 
always dorsal; calypteres and alula usually pronounced. (CYCLOR- 
RHAPHA) 35 

32. Neuration fairly normal, without faint oblique veins; antennae evidently two- 

or three-jointed 33 

Wings, when present, with several stout anterior veins running into the costa 
and other weak ones obliquely extending across the wing; antennae placed 
low, apparently single-jointed and with a long arista; hind legs long, their 
femora compressed; small, hunchbacked, quick running flies. (Dohrni- 
phora, Phora, Hypocera, Aphiochseta.) (PI. 11, fig. 250) PHORnXffi 

33. Wings rounded at the tip, second vein ending considerably before the wing- 

tip, crossveins present; oral bristles absent; eyes of males often meeting; 
face usually narrow; predaceous species. (MICROPHONA, ORTHOGENYA.) . .34 
W T ings pointed, no crossveins except at the base, second basal cell short, second 
vein ending almost at the tip of the whig; face with oral vibrissse; eyes sep- 
arated. (ACROPTERA) (Lonchoptera.) (PL 11, fig. 254; PL 12, fig. 278). 

(MUS1DORIDM) LONCHOPTERnXE 

34. At least one basal cell evident, discal cell usually separate from the second 

basal cell; calypteres small; proboscis usually rigid; antennal style or arista 
usually terminal; abdomen typically with seven segments, male genitalia 
never inflexed; color almost never metallic; third vein sometimes forked. 



66 Key to Families of North American Insects. 

(Hybos, Hemerodrdmia, Clin6cera, Platypalpus, Rhamphomyia) (PI. 11, 
fig. 251; PI. 12, figs. 268, 270, 300.) 

(EMP1DM, including H YBO TIDM) EMPIDID.E 

Basal cells small and indistinct, discal cell merged with the second basal cell, 
third vein never forked; calypteres rather large and fringed; proboscis almost 
always fleshy; abdomen typically with five or six segments excluding the 
large inflexed genitalia of male; usually metallic green. (Sciapus, 
Dolichopus, Gymnopternus, ChrysStus, Hydrophorus.) (PI. 12, figs. 274, 
299) DOLICHOPODIDJE 

35. Anal cell elongate, acute, usually closed toward the wing-margin, but at least 

longer than the second basal cell which is generally long; frontal suture 

rarely distinct. (AscmzA, ATHERICERA) 36 

Anal cell, if present, short, closed far from the wing-margin, not acutely pro- 
duced except rarely by a lobiform prolongation, second ba,sal cell much 
shorter than the third posterior cell except in the abnormal neuration of 
some Pupipara; frontal lunule and suture almost always distinct; never 
more than three posterior cells; marginal and submarginal cells never closed; 
third antennal joint almost always with dorsal arista; bristles of body and 
legs usually distinct. (Scmz6pHORA.) 39 

36. Proboscis very rarely elongated; eyes of males usually meeting 37 

Proboscis elongate and slender, often folding; face usually with a groove or 

grooves under the antennae; front broad in both sexes; antennae with terminal 
style or dorsal arista; no bristles. (Physocephala, My6pa, Z6dion, Onco- 
myia) (PL, 11, fig. 252; PI. 12, fig. 292) CON6PIIXE: 

37. First posterior cell open, no extra vein crossing the anterior crossvein; rather 

small, dull colored species 38 

First posterior cell closed, usually an extra vein between the third and fourth 
veins; head and usually body without bristles; arista almost always dorsal; 
usually bright colored flower flies. (Paragus, Syrphus, Erfstalis, Helo- 
philus, Xyldta) (PL 12, figs, 281, 301) SYRPHIDJE 

38. Arista terminal; hind tibiae and tarsi dilated, especially in the male; head and 

thorax with bristles. (Platypeza, Callimyia) (PL 12, fig. 285) (CLY- 

THIID^E) PLATYPEZIDJE 

Arista dorsal; hind legs not dilated; without true bristles. (Pipunculus, 
Chalarus.) (PL 12, fig. 289) (DORYLAIDM) PIPUNCULIDjE 

39. Legs not broadly separated; head movably separated from the thorax; adults 

not ectoparasites upon warm-blooded vertebrates; rarely viviparous, in 
which case the new-born larvae are young. (EuMTiiD^:, MUSCOIDEA, 

MYIODARIA.) 40 

Legs attached to the sides of the body; head small and closely united with 
the thorax, or folding back into a dorsal groove; adult flies of a leathery or 
horny structure, often wingless, living parasitic-ally upon warm-blooded 
vertebrates; viviparous, the new-born larva? well developed, ready for 
pupation. (PUPIPARA, NYMPHIPARA, EPROBOSCIDEA, OMALOPTERA) 79 

40. At least the lower calypter large; posthumeral and intraalar bristles usually 

both present; thorax with a complete transverse suture, posterior callosity 



Diptera. 67 

present; front of male narrow or the eyes meeting; auxiliary vein always 

distinct, first vein never short. (SCHIZOMETOPA, CALYPTERATJE.) 41 

Lower calypter vestigial or wanting; posthumeral bristle present only in some 
Scatophagidae; thorax without a complete transverse suture, posterior 
callosity usually absent; a visible membrane connecting the dorsal and 
ventral segments; front of both sexes of equal width, or if wider in the female, 
the greater width is due to a widening of the middle strip; fourth vein nearly 
straight, if curved never with an appendage; often very small species. 
(HOLOMETOPA, ACALYPTERAT^E; BORBOROIDEA.) 51 

41. Mouth opening small, the mouth-parts wanting or vestigial, not functional; 

vibrissse and bristles absent, no sternopleural bristles; ventral membrane 

evident, at least at the base of the abdomen. Bot-flies 42 

Mouth opening normal, the mouth-parts functional; usually with sternopleural 
bristles at least 43 

42. No hypopleural bristles or hairs; costa extending to the third vein; first posterior 

cell very widely open; calypteres rather small. (Gastrophilus [G. equi, 

Horse Bot-fly].) GASTROPHILIIXE 

Hypopleurse bearing hairs or bristles; costa extending to the fourth vein; first 
posterior cell closed or narrowed; calypteres large. (CEstrus [CE. ovis* 
Sheep Bot-fly], Hypoderma [H. lineata, Ox warble], Cuterebra) (including 
HYPODERMATlDjE, CUTEREBRID&) (ESTRID^E 

43. Both hypopleural and pteropleural bristles or hairs present in a more or less 

vertical row; fourth vein bending or curving forward; when three sterno- 
pleural bristles usually but one behind. (TACHINOIDEA.) 44 

Either the hypopleural or pteropleural hairs or bristles or both absent; ventral 
membrane usually distinct; when three sternopleural bristles present usually 
two behind 50 

44. Facial plate more or less convexly produced nose-like below the vibrissal angles 

and fused with the lowest part (epistome); ventral membrane present; 
abdomen destitute of stout bristles. (A16phora, Phorantha, Cistogaster, 
Trich6poda) (including GYMNOSOMATID.E with four, not five abdominal 

segments) PHASinXE 

Facial plate flattened, at most slightly produced; ventral membrane not visible; 
abdomen bearing some stout bristles 45 

45. Facial plate receding and short, the cheeks very broad, vibrissse located near 

the middle of the face; antennae short. (Microphthalma.) 

MEGAPROSOPHXE 

Facial plate long and never conspicuously receding, the oral margin more or 
less prominent, vibrissal angles near the oral margin; antennas usually long, 46 

46. Second ventral segment of the abdomen more or less overlapping the edges of 

the dorsal segment 47 

Edges of the dorsal segments overlapping all the ventral ones 49 

47. Hindermost posthumeral bristle located lateral to the presutural bristle; fifth 

ventral segment of the male with a split hind margin, sometimes strongly 
developed; usually metallic and with plumose arista. (Callfphora [Blow- 



68 Key to Families of North American Insects. 

fly], Lucflia [Green-bottle fly] Cynom.'ia [Blue-bottle fly], Pollenia, Chry- 
somyk [C. macellaria, Screw-worm]) (PL 13, figs. 302, 303, 304, 305). 

CALLIPHORIIXE 

Last posthumeral bristle placed in front or inside of the presutural bristle; 
arista bare or hairy at the base .................................... 48 

48. Fifth ventral segment of the male with a straight hind margin, or entirely 

absent. (Sarcophaga, Pachyophthalmus, MetSpia.) . . . SARCOPHAGUS 
Fifth ventral segment of the male split to the middle. (Phyto, Melanophora.) 

RHINOPHORIIXE 

49. No presutural intraalar bristle (PI. 12, fig. 303); second to fifth ventral seg- 

ments hidden; antennae usually at or below the middle of the eye, arista 
usually hairy; legs often lengthened. (Ptilodexia, Theresia, Thelaira. 



Intraalars usually extending in front of the suture, if not the ventral segments 
broadly visible or the fifth ventral of the male vestigial; antennae above the 
middle of the eye, with a bare arista; at least two posthumeral and three 
posterior intraalar bristles. (Tachina, Ocyptera, Exorista, Archytas, G&nia) 
(PI. 11, fig. 253; PL 12, fig. 297) (Including EXORISTID^, MASICERID*:, 
OCYPTERID^E, HiSTRiciiDiE and two score of other so-called families) (LAR- 
VMVQRIDM) ........................................ TACHINnXE 

50. Either the hypopleural or pteropleural hairs or bristles present (PL 13, fig. 

303); basal bristles of the abdomen reduced; fourth vein bending or curving 
forward; arista feathered to the tip. Musca [Af. domestica, Housefly], 
Morellia, Graphomyia, Stomoxys [S. calcitrans, Stable-fly], Haematobia 
[H. (Lyperosia) serrata, Horn-fly]) (PL 12, figs. 259, 296) ...... MtJSCIDJE 

Neither the hypopleural nor pteropleural hairs or bristles present; abdomen 
usually bristly; fourth vein usually curving backward; arista sometimes bare. 
(Ccen&sia, Aricia, Fannia (= Homalomyia), Muscina, Myiospila, Ph6rbia 
[P. brassicce, Cabbage and Radish maggot; P. cepetorum, Onion maggot].) 

ANTHOMYIIDvE 

51. Auxiliary vein distinctly separate from the first vein and ending in the costa, 

the first vein usually ending near the middle of the wing; anal cell present, 52 

Auxiliary vein less distinct, sometimes partly touching the first vein or vestig- 

ial, the first vein usually ending much before the middle of the wing ..... 66 

52. Oral vibrissse present (PL 13, fig. 305); abdomen with more than four visible 

segments; eyes bare; wings rarely pictured .......................... 53 

Oral vibrissse absent ................................................. 57 

53. Costa beset with numerous spines; post vertical bristles convergent; tibiae with 

spurs and with preapical bristles. (Leria, Helomyza, Tephrochlamys.) 

HELOMYZID^ 

Costa not spinose, even at the auxiliary vein; postvertical bristles divergent 
or (Phycodromia) subparallel ...................................... 54 

54. Front bristly on the sides and on the vertex ............................ 55 

Front never bristly near the antennae; abdomen somewhat elongate and usually 

narrower at the base; small, black scavenger flies. (Sepsis, Nem6poda.) 

SEPSHXfE 



Diptera. 69 

55. Thorax convex, face and cheeks not remarkably bristly 56 

Mesonotum and scutellum flattened; front, face and cheeks bristly; all the 

tibiae spurred and with preapical bristles; last tarsal joint large. (CcelSpa, 
Omomyia.) PHYCODROMEDJE 

56. Central strip of the front (frontalia) usually well differentiated from the sides 

(orbits) (PL 13, fig. 304); first vein nearly half the wing-length; second 
basal cell not minute; crossveins not close together; frontal cross-bristles 
absent. (Cordylura, Parallelomma, Scatophaga) (PL 12, fig. 271) (COR- 
DYLURIDM, SCATOMYZIDM, SCOPEUMIDM) . . SCATOPHAGED JE 
Central strip of the front not differentiated from the sides; first vein about 
one-third of the wing-length; second basal cell minute; crossveins sometimes 
approximated; frontal cross-bristles sometimes present. (Clftsia, Hetero- 
neftra.) HETERONEURID^; 

57. First posterior cell closed or narrowed in the margin; abdomen elongate; legs 

long or very long 58 

First posterior cell widely open, if narrowed the abdomen is short and the legs 
are not unusually long and slender 60 

58. Eyes large, the cheeks and posterior orbits narrow, occiput concave 59 

Head more or less globular, the cheeks broad and the face retreating; proboscis 

short. (Micropeza, Calobata, Nerius.) 

(CALOBATIDM) MICROPEZIDJE 

59. Proboscis short; arista dorsal; ovipositor not lengthened. (Tanypeza.) 

TANYPEZnXE 

Proboscis and ovipositor greatly lengthened; arista terminal (Stylogaster) 
(see couplet 36) CONOPED^E 

60. First posterior cell narrowed; femora and usually the hind tibiae enlarged; all 

the tibiae with preapical bristle; scutellum usually prominent; basal cells 
relatively large; tropical species. (Rhopalomera, Willistoniella.) 

RHOPALOMEREDJE 
First posterior cell widely open, if rarely n'arrowed the femora are not thick . . 61 

61. Hind tibiae with a preapical bristle, apical tibial bristles present; ovipositor 

neither flat nor drawn out; usually two fronto-orbital bristles; wings some- 
times pictured 62 

Hind tibiae without preapical bristle, middle tibia; alone with apical bristles; 
front femora bristly beneath; ovipositor flattened and more or less pro- 
jecting; postvertical bristles divergent when present; clypeus prominent; 
wings usually pictured 64 

62. Postvertical bristles divergent when present; second antennal joint without 

a dorsal bristle; mesopleural and usually sternopleural bristles wanting; 
front femora not bristly beneath; anal vein reaching the wing-margin. .63 
Postvertical bristles convergent; second antennal joint with a dorsal bristle; 
one or two sternopleural and a mesopleural bristle present; lower outer 
edge of the front femora bearing bristles; anal vein obliterated toward the 
tip. (Lauxania, Camptoprosopella.) . . (SAPROMYZlDffi] LAUXANIID^ 



70 Key to Families of North American Insects. 

63. Clypeus well developed; vibrissal angle very weak; more than two dorso- 

central bristles; sternopleural bristles sometimes present. (Neuroctena, 
Heterochila.) ........................................ DRYOMYZID^ 

Clypeus vestigial; not more than two dorsocentral bristles; rarely a single 
sternopleural bristle. (Sepedon, Sciomyza, Tetanocera.) 

(SCIOMYZIDM) TETANOCERDX& 

64. Fronto-orbital bristles extending to the antennae; auxiliary vein abruptly bent 

forward before the tip of the first vein, anal cell angular (see couplet 70). 

TRYPETDME 

Fronto-orbital bristles confined to the vertex; auxiliary vein not bent at the 
end but gently curving ........................................... 65 

65. Anal cell usually acute, the anal vein reaching the margin; usually two fronto- 

orbital bristles. (Pyrgdta, Rivellia, Euxesta, Chaetopsis) (PL 12, fig 275) 
(including PYRGOTHXE (= DO RYC BRIDGE), ULIDIID^, PLATY- 
STOMATID^E, etc.) .................................. ORTALIDIIXE 

Anal cross vein recurved, the anal cell never acute, anal vein abbreviate; one 
fronto-orbital bristle. (Palloptera, Lonchaea.) ........... LONCILEID^ 

66. Head laterally produced as a process bearing the eye; second basal and discal 

cells united; no vibrissae; front femora thickened. (Sphyracephala.) 



Head not produced at the sides, the eyes not stalked .................... 67 

67. First joint of hind tarsi (metatarsus) shorter than the following joint and more 

or less thickened; vibrissae present; front usually bristly; third antennal 
joint short and rounded; small dull-colored species found about excrement 
or marshes. (Leptocera (=Limosind), Sphaer6cera, Borborus) (PL 9, 
fig. 255) (COPROMYZIDJS, CYPSELIDJE, SPH^E ROC BRIDGE) 

BORBORnXE 
Hind metatarsi longer than the next joint and slender ................... 68 

68. Legs very long and slender, the hind femora slightly swollen apically; first 

posterior cell narrowed, second basal cell complete; arista feathered; no 
vibrissse; tropical species (see couplet 58). (Cardiacephala.) 

MICROPEZIDJE 

Legs never very elongate; if the first posterior cell is rarely narrowed, otherwise 
disagreeing ...................................................... 69 

69. Scutellum elongate, triangular, margined with protuberances; femora thickened; 

ovipositor closing together telescope-like; basal cells large; tropical species 
(see couplet 60). (Rhin6tora.) ................... RHOPALOMERTO^ 

Not such flies ...................................................... 70 

70. Auxiliary vein becoming weak and abruptly turned forward at its end; anal 

cell angular or acutely lobed at its posterior distal end; second basal cell 
distinct; wings almost always pictured; no preapical tibial bristles; no 
vibrissse; fronto-orbital bristles numerous. (Ceratitis [C. capitata, Mediter- 
ranean fruit-fly], Epochra [E. canadensis, Currant maggot], Trypeta, Rhago- 
IStis [R. pomonella, Apple maggot], Tephritis.) 

(EURIBHD&) TRYPETIDjE 

Auxiliary vein not abruptly ending a considerable distance before the end of 
the first vein; anal cell not acute .................................... 71 



Diptera. 71 

71. Costa microscopically broken twice, just beyond the humeral crossvein and 

at the end of the auxiliary vein (best seen by transmitted light) ; postvertical 

bristles convergent; no bristle above the front coxse 72 

Costa not broken near the humeral crossvein; mouth-opening not wide; 
arista not feathery 74 

72. Anal cell wanting and basal cell fused with the discal cell (except Canace) ; no 

vibrissse; clypeus very large; mouth-opening very large, the center of the 
face raised; foremost fronto-orbital bristles diverging; arista bare, hairy 
or feathered; dark-colored, shore-living species. (Notiphila, Hydrellia, 

Parydra, Ephydra.) EPHYDRHXE 

Anal cell almost always present; second basal cell usually complete; vibrissse 
present; mouth-opening not large; center of the face concave 73 

73. Foremost pair of fronto-orbital bristles converging; bristles of the middle of 

front less evident; arista loosely pubescent; clypeus small; occiput reaching 
forward under the eyes. (Milichiella, DesmometSpa, Meoneiira) (PI. 

12, fig. 282) MELICHinXE 

Foremost fronto-orbital bristles proclinate; interfrontal bristles rare; arista 
almost invariably feathered; clypeus large; occiput not forming part of the 
cheeks. (Phortica, Cyrtondtum, Drosophila [Pomace-fly]) (including 
ASTEID.E) DROSOPHILIIXE 

74. Anal and second basal cells absent; interfrontalia large; postvertical bristles 

converging; usually no vibrissse, fronto-orbital or interfrontal bristles. 
(Meromyza [M. americana, Wheat-stem maggot], Chlfirops, Hippelates, 
Oscinis (= Botanobia) [Frit-fly]) (PI. 9, fig. 256) (OSCINIDM). 

CHLOROPnXflE 
Anal and basal cells complete 75 

75. Oral vibrissae present (exceptionally absent in Geomyzidae) ; costa almost 

always broken near the end of the first vein 76 

Oral vibrissse absent; auxiliary vein ending in the costa; clypeus small .... 78 

76. Postvertical bristles convergent when present; auxiliary vein independently 

ending in the costa; clypeus large; foremost fronto-orbital bristles directed 
backward; mesopleural bristles present; cilia of the calypteres loose. (Trix- 
6scelis, Diastata, Anthomyza) (PI. 12, fig. 279). 

(OPOMYZIDM) GEOMYZIIXE 

Postvertical bristles divergent when present; fringe of the calypteres dense; 
clypeus small 77 

77. Only the uppermost fronto-orbital bristles present; auxiliary vein ending in 

the costa; no mesopleural or prothoracic bristles; arista bare. (Prochyliza, 

Piophila [P. casei, cheese-skipper] Mycetaulus.) PIOPHILED^ 

Lower fronto-orbitals convergent; auxiliary vein usually ending in the first 
vein; mesopleural and one prothoracic bristles present; arista closely pubes- 
cent. (Cerodonta, Agromyza, Phytomyza, Odinia.) 

(including PHYTOMYZID^) AGROMYZIDJE 

78. Costa usually entire, at most slightly weakened just before the end of the 

auxiliary vein; basal cells small; postvertical bristles convergent; arista bare; 



72 Key to Families of North American Insects. 

densely gray dusted species, the abdomen usually marked with black or 

brown spots. (Ochthiphila, Leucopis.) OCHTHIPHILID^ 

Costa interrupted near the end of the first vein; basal cells relatively large; 
postvertical bristles divergent when present; arista pubescent; rather 
slender, usually shining species with the antennae often very long and hang- 
ing downward. (Chyliza, Loxocera, Psila.) PSILIDjE 

79. Head folding back on the dorsum of the thorax; wingless flies parasitic on 

bats. (Nycteribia.) NYCTERIBIIDJE 

Head sunk into the thorax, but not folded back, winged or wingless species, 
parasitic on birds or mammals 80 

80. Palpi broader than long, projecting leaf -like in front of the head; wings when 

present with distinct parallel veins and outer crossveins; claws simple; 
almost always parasitic on bats. (Trichdbius, Strebla.) . . STREBLIDJS 
Palpi forming a sheath for the proboscis; wings if present with the veins 
crowded along the costa and with weaker oblique ones extending across the 
wings; tarsal claws strong and often armed with a series of small teeth. 
(Hippob6sca, Olfersia, Mel6phagus [M. ovinus, Sheep-tick]) (PI. 11, fig. 
257) HIPPOBOSCIIXE 

ORDER SUCTORIA. 

(SIPHON APTERA, APHAN1PTERA, RHOPHOTEIRA.) 
Small, wingless, strongly compressed, jumping insects, para- 
sitic in the adult condition on warm-blooded animals; head small, 
indistinctly separated from the thorax; antennae short and thick, 
placed in depressions behind the small simple eyes which are some- 
times wanting; mouth formed for sucking; thoracic segments not 
fused; coxae large, close together; tarsi five- jointed; cerci one- 
jointed; larvae worm-like; pupae enclosed in cocoons. Fleas. 

1. Thoracic segments not strongly shortened and constricted, their side plates 

extending over only one abdominal segment; labial palpi with three or 
more false joints; maxillary palpi almost always shorter than the front 
coxae; third joint of antennae with nine more or less distinctly separated 

false joints 2 

Thoracic segments strongly shortened and constricted, the metathoracic side 
plates extending over two or three abdominal segments; head strongly 
angulated anteriorly; labial palpi without false joints; maxillary palpi 
extending beyond the front coxae; third antennal joint without completely 
separated false joints; fully developed female with enormously dilated 
abdomen, living beneath the skin during her final development. (Derma- 
tophilus (= Sarcopsylla, = Rhynchoprion) [D. penetrans, Jigger-flea]) (PI. 
13, fig. 310) (SARCOPSYLLlDfi, RHYNC OPRIONIDJS). 

DERMATOPHILIDJE 

2. Maxillae triangular, acute at apex 3 

Maxillae clubbed or subquadrangular; face strongly sloping forward and recurved 

just above the mouth, where there are two tooth-like plates on each side; 



Homoptera. 73 

eyes absent; pronotum, and usually abdomen with comb-like arrangements 
of spines; species occurring on bats (Ceratopsyllus.) CERATOPSYLLID^ 

3. Spines of hind tibia? in a single row, or in pairs (PI. 13, figs. 306, 308) 4 

Spines of hind tibiae numerous, in close-set, short transverse rows on the hind 

border, about four spines in each row. (Hystrichopsylla.) 

HYSTRICHOPSYLim& 

4, Spines of hind tibiae in pairs and few in number, not in a very close-set row. 

(Pfflex [P. irritans, Human flea], Ctenocephalus [C. canis, Dog flea; C. felis, 
Cat flea], XenopsyUa (= Laemopsylla) [X. cheopis, Tropical rat flea, Plague 
flea], Ceratophyilus [C. fasciatus, Rat and plague flea of temperate regions]) 

(PI. 13, figs. 306, 307, 308, 309, 311, 312) PULICIIX& 

Spines of hind tibiae numerous, mostly single and in a close-set row. -(Ctenop- 
syllus.) CTENOPSYLLIIXE 



ORDER HOMOPTERA. 

(RHYNCHOTA, part.) 

An assemblage of very diverse insects, difficult to define in a 
general way; usually of moderate or small size, rarely large; in 
the active forms four wings are present in both sexes; in the scale 
insects only the males are winged, and they have the hind wings 
absent; wings usually sloping over the sides of the body; fore 
wings never modified into a heavy basal and thinner apical por- 
tion; beak jointed, inserted at the hind edge of the head and ex- 
tending between the front coxse, the basal joints very short, rarely 
the beak is absent in the males; cerci wanting. Metamorphoses 
usually incomplete, sometimes complete in the male, rarely so 
in the female; all the species plant-feeders. 

1. Tarsi three-jointed; antennae very short, with a small terminal bristle; beak 

plainly arising from the head; active free-living species. (AUCHENOR- 

RHYNCHA.) 2 

Tarsi two- or one-jointed; antennae usually well developed, sometimes absent, 
without conspicuous terminal bristle; beak appearing to arise between the 
front legs, rarely absent in the male; species often incapable of moving, or 
inactive in the female sex 14 

2. Three ocelli, placed on the disk of the vertex (PI. 16, fig. 376) ; antennae with short 

basal joint, terminated by a hair-like process which is divided into about 
five joints; front femora thickened and generally spined beneath; male with 
a sound-producing organ on each side at the base of the abdomen; com- 
paratively large species. (Cicada [C. septendecim, Periodical Cicada], 

Tibicen, Platypedia) (PI. 15, figs. 348, 349) CICADDXE 

Two ocelli, rarely three or more 3- 



V4 Key to Families of North American Insects. 

3. Ocelli (rarely absent) placed between the eyes (PI. 16, fig. 377), on the vertex, on 

the front, or on the front margin of the head 4 

Ocelli placed beneath or near the eyes, usually in cavities of the cheeks ; pronotum 
neither armed nor unusually developed. (FuLGORoiDEA) 8 

4. Pronotum prolonged backwards into a hood or process of variable form extend- 

ing over the abdomen and usually much elevated; antennae inserted between 
and in front of the eyes. Tree-hoppers. (Ceresa [C. bubalus, Buffalo 
tree-hopper], Enchendpa, Telamdna) (PL 14, fig. 345; PL 15, fig. 350, 

351, 352; PL 16, figs. 370, 372) MEMBRACDXE 

Pronotum not prolonged over the base of the abdomen 5 

5. Tibiae smooth, the hind pair armed with one or two stout spines and with a 

cluster of spinules at apex; ocelli placed on the vertex, rarely absent. 

Spittle insects. (Aphrophora, Clastdptera.) CERCOPIDjE 

Hind tibire with a double series of spines beneath; ocelli variable in position, 
rarely absent. Leaf-hoppers 6 

6. Veins of the fore wings branching on the disk so that they form a series of pre- 

apical cells 7 

Veins of the fore wings branching at the apex and passing without fork to the 
apical cells; ocelli usually absent. (Typhlocyba [T. comes, Grape leaf-hop- 
per], Empoasca [E. mali, Apple leaf-hopper]) (PL 15, fig. 353). 

TYPHLOCYBIDJE 

7. Head very short, vertex sloping or rounding on to the front; ocelli on the front. 

(Bythoscopus, Idiocerus.) BYTHOSCOPIIXE 

Head more or less prominent; ocelli placed on the disk of the vertex. (Diedro- 
cephala, Tettigoniella (= Tettigonia], Gypona) (PL 15, figs. 354, 357). 

(TETTIGONIIDfil} PROCONHDJE 

Head produced or rounded; ocelli on the margin between the vertex and front. 
(Acocephalus, Deltocephalus, Thamnotettix) (PL 15, fig. 355) . . JASSID^E 
S. Anal angle of wings net-veined; the ridge separating the front from the cheeks 
contiguous on the sides of the clypeus. (Poiocera) (PL 15, fig. 356). 

FULGORIDJE 
Anal area of wings rarely net-veined, when so, the clypeus without lateral 

ridges 9 

9. Hind tibiae without a mobile spur at apex 10 

Hind tibiae with a long, robust, mobile spur at apex. (Liburnia Stobaera) 

(PL 15, fig. 359) '. DELPHACmE 

10. Clavus very rarely granulate, pointed at apex, rarely somewhat obtusely, 
but distinctly closed; two veins remote or very remote from the apex, some- 
times united in one beyond the middle of the clavus; costa very rarely 
dilated; tegmina sometimea shortened or fused with clavus or corium. . . .11 
Clavus granulate, apex sometimes subacute and closed, sometimes very obtuse 
and broadly open, with two veins separated through the entire length or 
united in one near apex; costa dilated; costal membrane transversely veined; 
claval suture distinct. (Ormenis, Amphiscepha, ChlorochrSa) (PL 15, 
figs. 358, 361) FLATID^S 



Homoptera. 75 

11. Claval vein not reaching apex, united with commisural margin near apex; 

tegmina sometimes shortened or fused with clavus and corium, when so, 
the lateral margins of the clypeus are ridged; two or three ocelli. (Scolops, 

Cixius) (PI. 15, figs. 366, 367) CIXHD^E 

Claval vein continued to the apex itself or united with the claval suture near 
apex; tegmina sometimes shortened or fused with clavus and corium, when 
so the lateral margins of the clypeus are not ridged 12 

12. First joint of hind tarsi elongate; head usually narrower than the thorax, 

which is angularly emarginate at base 13 

First joint of hind tarsi short, very rarely somewhat elongate; head not or 
scarcely narrower than the thorax which is truncate at base. (Brucho- 
morpha, Naso.) ISSID./E 

13. Last joint of beak elongate; species of usual form, the wings not especially long. 

(Helic6ptera.) ACIfflJIXE 

Last joint of beak short, or very short; very delicate long-winged species. 
(OtiScerus, Anotia) (PI. 15, fig. 360) DERBID^E 

14. Tarsi two-jointed, the basal joint sometimes reduced, the outer joint with two 

claws; wings when present four in number, with few veins, at rest usually 
lying in a sloping position over the abdomen; sutures between body seg- 
ments distinct; mouth-parts usually well developed in both sexes, labium 

usually long 15 

Tarsi one-jointed, with a single claw; females always wingless, often without 
legs so that they rarely move after maturity, remaining sessile on the host 
plant; female rarely without mouth-parts; male usually with a single pair 
of wings which lie flat, one above the other; labium usually short; antennae 
of female absent, or with as many as eleven joints; in the male ten- to twenty- 
five-jointed; body of female scale-like, gall-like or covered with waxy powder, 
tufts or scales, the sutures between the segments often indistinct. Scale 
Insects, Bark-lice, Mealy-bugs. (Orthezia, Kermes [Soft oak-scales], 
Dactyldpius [D. coccus, Cochineal-insect], Pseudococcus [Mealy-bugs], 
Pulvinaria [P. vitis, Cottony-scale], Coccus [C. hesperidum, Soft scale], 
Eulecanium [E. nigrofasriatum, Terrapin scale], Chionaspis [C. furfur a, 
Scurfy scale], Aspidifitus [A. perniciosus, San Jose scale], Lepidosaphes 
[L. vlmi (= Mytilaspis pomonim), Oyster-shell scale]) (PL 14, fig. 344, 
346; PI. 15, figs. 362, 363, 364, 365) COCCID^E 

15. Legs with thickened femora; antennae long, five- to ten-jointed, last joint with 

two fine apical bristles; fore wings somewhat thicker, often more or less 
leathery; pad between the tarsal claws prominent, bilobed. Jumping 
plant-lice. . (Psylla [P. pyricola, Pear Psylla], Trioza) (PI. 16, fig. 368, 

371) (CEEEM1DM) PSYLLIDjE 

Legs long and slender; wings of more or less similar consistency; antennae 
three- to six-jointed 16 

16. Wings usually opaque, whitish, clouded, or mottled with spots or bands; body 

more or less mealy; tarsi with two nearly equal joints; tip of tibiae with a 
number of short spines; a pad-shaped or spine-like process between the 



76 Key to Families of North American Insects. 

tarsal claws; pupal stage present. White-flies. (Aleyrddes [A. vaporario- 
rum, Greenhouse white-fly], Aleurodicus) (PI. 16, figs. 369, 375). 

ALEYRODIIXflE 

Wings transparent, though sometimes colored; tarsi two-jointed, the basal 
joint sometimes very much reduced; body not mealy but rarely with waxy 
wool; process between the tarsal claws absent or nearly so. Plant-lice. 
(Phylloxera [P. vasiatrix, Grape Phylloxera], Aphis [A. brassicae, Cabbage 
Aphid; A. gossypii, Melon Aphid; A. mali, Apple Aphid; A. sorbi, Rosy 
Aphid], Myzus [M. cerasi, Cherry Aphid; M. ribis, Currant Aphid], Phor- 
odon [P humuli, Hop Aphid], Nectarophora [N. ( Macrosiphum) pisi, 
Pea Aphid], Toxoptera [T. graminum, Grain Aphid]) (PL 16, figs. 373, 374). 



ORDER HEMIPTERA. 

(HETEROPTERA ; RH YNCHOTA, part.) 

Terrestrial or aquatic species ranging from minute to large size; 
usually more or less flattened or cylindrical; feeding on the juices 
of plants or animals. Head free, forming a sucking, inflexed, 
jointed beak which is usually inserted toward the front end of 
the head; antennae with few joints, those of the terrestrial species 
usually long; pro thorax large, free; wings overlapping on the 
abdomen, the fore pair (hemelytra) tough at the base and mem- 
branous apically, the hind pair with large anal field, wings some- 
times reduced or absent; legs of variable form, tarsi normally 
three- jointed; no cerci. Metamorphosis incomplete. True 
Bugs. 

1. Tarsal claws devoid of arolia, very rarely provided with arolia (Miridae) in 

which case the meso- and metasternum are composite 2 

Tarsal claws always provided with arolia; beak generally four-jointed; meso- 
and metasterna simple 27 

2. Antennae very short; meso- and metasternum composite; metasternum devoid 

of gland openings; aquatic species 3 

Antennas always longer than the head, if slightly shorter, the eyes and ocelli 
are absent 9- 

3. Ocelli present; beak four-jointed 4- 

Ocelli absent; antennae more or less hidden in cavities in the head; aquatic 

species 5 

4. Antennae exserted; front legs as long as the middle ones; formed for running. 

(Ochterus (= Pelogonus] ) (PELOGONIDsE) OCHTERIDJE 

Antennae hidden; the front legs formed for grasping; short and broad species 
with prominent eyes. (Gelast6coris, Mononyx.) 

(GALGULID&, MONONYCHID&) NERTHRID^E 



Hemiptera. 77 

5. Front coxae placed at or near the front margin of the prosternum; front legs 

formed for grasping; beak three-jointed 6 

Front coxae placed at the hind margin of the short prosternum; legs fitted for 
swimming; hind tarsi with no claws; membrane without veins; hemelytra 
sometimes wholly coriaceous, strongly convex 8 

6. Membrane reticulate; beak provided with very small labial palpi 7 

Membrane without veins; beak without labial palpi; hind coxae hinged; posterior 

tibiae slender. (Pel6coris, Ambrysus.) NAUCORID^E 

7. Hind coxae hinged; hind legs fitted for swimming; posterior tibiae flattened and 

fringed, the hind femora usually sulcate; tip of abdomen with two retractile 
appendages. Giant water-bugs. (Belostoma, Lethocerus, Zaitha) (PI. 

14, fig. 342) BELOSTOMATIIXE 

Hind coxae rotating; hind legs formed for walking; abdomen with long breathing 
tubes at apex. Water scorpions. (Nepa, Ranatra) (PL 13, fig. 313; 
PL 14, fig. 324.) NEPIIXE 

8. Body convex above; head inserted into prothorax; beak four- or three- jointed; 

front tarsi not flattened. Back swimmers. (Notonecta) (PL 14, fig. 

323) NOTONECTDX& 

Body flat above; vertex of head free from the prothorax; beak unjoin ted, or 
at most two- join ted, hidden; metasternum furnished with parapleurae; 
front tarsi flattened, one-jointed, middle legs long, hind legs formed for 
swimming. Water boatmen. (Corixa) (PL 13, fig. 322; PL 14, figs. 

328, 329) CORIXHXE: 

9. First two joints of antennae very short, last two long, pilose, the third thickened 

at base; ocelli present; veins of the hemelytra forming cells 10 

Third joint of antennae not thickened at the base, the second joint often longer 
than the third or as long, rarely shorter 11 

10. Head more or less porrect. (CeratocSmbus) (CERATOCOMBIDJE). 

DIPSOCORmE 

Head inflexed between the prominent front coxae. (Hypselosdma (=Glyp- 
tocdmbus) SCmZOPTERmE; 

11. Meso- and metasterna composite, very rarely the sutures obsolete, in which 

case the clypeus is triangular (Cimicidae) ; cuneus of the fully winged forms 

more or less distinct; hind coxae hinged (except in a few Miridae) 12 

Meso- and metasterna simple; hind coxae nearly globose, rotating with a ball 
and socket joint (except in Acanthiidse) 15 

12. Clypeus parallel or subparallel 13 

Clypeus triangular, broader apically; ocelli absent; wings never fully developed. 

Bedbug family. (Cimex [C. lectularius, Bedbug]) (PL 13, fig. 321; PL 14, 
fig. 330) (AC AN THUD fi of authors, CLINOCORIDM) .. CIMICIDAE 

13. Ocelli of both sexes absent; tarsi three- join ted; beak four-jointed; membrane 

with two basal cells, the outer one small, or with a single cell which is broad- 
ened apically or rarely suboval, very rarely (Myrmecophyes) with irregular, 
free veins; beak with the first joint rarely shorter than the head. Leaf- 



78 Key to Families of North American Insects. 

bugs. (Lygus [L. pratensis, Tarnished plant bug], Halticus, Poecilocapsus) 

(PL 14, 6g. 325.) (CAPSIDfil.) MIRIDJE 

Ocelli present; tarsi three-jointed 14 

14. Beak four-jointed; head vertical; membrane with one or two cells or one vein. 

(Isomet&pus.) ISOMETOPIIX 

Beak three-jointed; head horizontal; membrane with four to one longitudinal 
veins which are rarely entirely lacking. (Anthocoris, Tnphleps [T. insid- 
wsus, Predatory flower-bug]) (PL 14, fig. 337) ANTHOCORID^ 

15. Claws subapical; hind coxae distant; hemelytra of uniform texture, the clavus, 

corium and membrane confluent 16 

Claws apical 17 

16. Beak four-jointed, but the first joint short; middle and hind legs close together, 

distant from the front ones and much longer than the latter. 
Water striders. (Gems (= Limnotrechus)) (PL 14, fig. 327) HYDRO- 
BAUD^ GERRIDjE 

Beak three-jointed; middle legs almost as distant from the front as from the 
hind ones. (Microvelia, Rhagovelia.) VELIUXE 

17. Prosternum without a stridulation groove 18 

Prosternum with a median stridulation groove; beak three-jointed, short and 

stout 25 

18. Ocelli absent; beak three-jointed 19 

Ocelli present, when very rarely absent, the beak is four-jointed and the 

head is not apically widened 22 

19. Tarsi three- or four-jointed 20 

Tarsi two-jointed; broad, flat species living under bark; head produced between 

antennas; abdomen broader than the wings 21 

20. Body, linear; head horizontal, as long as the thorax and widened toward the 

apex. Marsh treaders. (Hydr6metra (= Limnobates}) (PL 14, fig. 326). 

(LIMNOBATID&) HYDROMETRHXE 

Body oblong; head broad, triangular, shorter than thorax; eyes absent; no 
scutellum; hemelytra short, destitute of membrane; parasitic on bats. 
(Hesper6ctenes) (PL 14, fig. 333) POLYCTENID^E 

21. Head not wide behind the eyes which are prominent; beak longer than the 

head; trochanters very short, fusing with the femora; abdominal spiracles 
placed near the base of the segments. (Aradus) (PL 14, fig. 335). 

ARADHXE 

Posterior part of head wide, enclosing the eyes, often spinose, beak rarely 
longer than the head; trochanters distinct; abdominal spiracles remote 
from the base of the segments. (Aneurus, Mezira.) DYSODfflXE; 

22. Beak four-jointed, with the first joint small; last joints of the antennae more 

slender; membrane with two or three longitudinal cells emitting radiating 

veins. (Reduviolus, Pagasa.) NABnXffi 

Beak three-jointed 23 



Hemiptera. 79 

23. Head not constricted at the base behind the eyes ....................... 24 

Head constricted at the base and behind the eyes, swollen between; pronotum 

divided into three lobes; hemelytra wholly membranous, provided with 
longitudinal veins and a few crossveins; front tibiae swollen; front tarsi 
one-jointed, hind tarsi two-jointed. (Henicocephalus) (PI. 14, fig. 336). 

HENICOCEPHALnXE 

24. First joint of antennae longer than the second; hemelytra with submembra- 

naceous corium with elevated veins, the clavus and membrane membra- 
naceous, confluent, the latter destitute of veins. (Mesovelia.) 



First joint of antennae shorter than the second; hemelytra with distinct clavus, 
corium and membrane, the latter with four or five contiguous longitudinal 
cells; eyes large and projecting; small, flattened forms. Shore-bugs. 
(Acanthia (= Soldo).) (PI. 13, fig. 315.) .... (SALDID&) ACANTHmXE 

25. Antennae elbowed, filiform or often slender apically; membrane with two or 

three large basal cells ............................................. 26 

Last joint of antennae knobbed or enlarged in the middle; membrane with the 
veins joined, frequently forked and uniting; tarsi two-jointed; front legs 
formed for grasping, the femora much thickened. (Phymata.) 

(PHYMATIDM) MACROCEPHAim& 

26. Rather robust, predatory species, body not linear. Assassin bugs. (Melano- 

lestes [M . picipes, Kissing bug], Conorhinus [C. sanguisugus, Big Bedbug], 
Sinea) (PI. 13, figs. 316, 193; PL 14, fig. 338) ..'... ...... REDUVmXE 

Linear species with excessively long and thin legs. (Emesa.) . .EMESIDJE 

27. Head not shield-like, the margins usually obtuse; antennae completely visible 

from above ...................................................... 28 

Head more or less expanded, the side margins acute in front of the eyes; at 
least the first joint of the antennae not visible from above; membrane with 
several veins .................................................... 36 

28. Antennae five-jointed, the second joint short; clavus membranous, largely 

confluent with the membrane which is destitute of veins; tarsi two-jointed. 
(Nseogeus.) .............................. (HEBRIDM) NMOGEIDM 

Antennae four-jointed ................................................ 29 

29. Ocelli absent ...................................................... .30 

Ocelli present ....................................................... 31 

30. Hemelytra of the fully winged forms consisting of clavus, corium and mem- 

brane; beak free; tarsi three- join ted; stout bugs of moderate size. (Dys- 
dercus [D. suturellus, Cotton Stainer]) ............. . .PYRRHOCORID^ 

Hemelytra wholly membranous, densely reticulated; cheeks entirely raised, 
forming a groove which includes the base of the beak; tarsi two-jointed; 
flat bugs of small size. Lace-bugs, (Corythftca [C. arcuata, Hawthorn 
Lace-bug]) (PI. 14, fig. 340) .............................. TINGITID^B 

81. Membrane with many longitudinal veins which often unite; antennae inserted 
well up on the sides of the head .................................... 32 

Membrane with at most five veins ... .... 34 



80 Key to Families of North American Insects. 

32. Fourth dorsal segment of abdomen constricted medially; gland openings of 

metathorax usually obsolete, if rarely visible placed between the hind coxal 
cavities and emitting two divergent grooves. (Corizus, Harm6stes) (PL 

14, fig. 331) CORIZHXS 

Basal margin of fourth and fifth dorsal segments usually sinuate in parallel 
manner; gland openings of metathorax almost always distinct 33 

33. Head much narrower and shorter than the prothorax, cheeks usually reaching 

behind insertion of antennae; exterior margin of hind coxal cavities nearly 
parallel with axis of body. (Anasa [A. tristis, Squash-bug], Leptoglossus 
[L. phyllopus, leaf-footed Bug], Lept6coris [L. tritittatus, Box -elder plant- 
bug]) (PL 13, figs. 317, 318, 320; PL 14, figs. 334, 341) COREDXE 

Head nearly as broad and long as prothorax, cheeks scarcely extending behind 
base of antennae; exterior margin of hind coxal cavities more or less trans- 
verse. (Alydus, Stachyocnemus.) ALYDEhE 

84. Anterior lobes of the head produced at the apex; membrane of the fully winged 

forms usually with four free veins and coriaceous at the base; tarsi two- 
jointed. (Piesma.) PIESMID^ 

Anterior lobes of the head not produced; membrane of the fully winged forms 
entirely membranous; tarsi three-jointed 35 

85. Antennse not elbowed; head not constricted in front of the eyes. (Blissus 

[B. leucopterus, Chinch-bug], Oncopeltus, Geocoris) (PL 14, fig. 343). 

(LYGJE1DM} MYODOCHIDjE 

Antennse elbowed, the first joint long and clubbed, the last joint spindle-shaped; 
head constricted in front of the eyes; scutellum small; femora clubbed. 

Stilt Bugs. (Jfilysus, Neides.) (BERYTIDM) NEIDnXE 

36. Scutellum narrowed behind, rarely almost covering the abdomen; veins of 
membrane arising near inner basal angle from a vein extending from this 
angle nearly parallel with the margin of the corium. Stink bugs. (Cos- 
mopepla, Euschistus, Murgantia [AI. histrionica, Harlequin Cabbage-bug], 
Peribalus, Brochymena.) (PL 13, fig. 314; PL 14, fig. 332.) 

PENTATOMIIXE 

Scutellum very convex and large, nearly or quite covering the abdomen; mem- 
brane with a curved or oblique crossvein whose inner end extends away 
from the corium; hind wings with a heavy abrupt spur-like vein (hamus) 37 
87. Corium narrow, and pointed; tibiae strongly spinose; (Thyreocoris (=Con- 
m/<pna),Cydnus) (CORIMELMNID,CYDNlDfi). . THYREOCORIIXE 
Corium broad, obtuse at apex; tibiae smooth or with small spinules. (Eury- 
gaster.Homaemus.) SCUTELLERID^ 

CLASS THYSANURA. 

Rather small, wingless, terrestrial insects of active habits; 
body generally clothed with scales; antennae hair-like, many- 
jointed; abdomen composed of eleven segments, the last furnished 
with a pair of long, filiform many-jointed cerci and usually with 



Lepismataidea Machilaidea 81 

a similar and long median cerciform appendage; the second to 
the seventh ventral segments with single-jointed, marginal styles 
and eversible sacs; eighth and ninth ventral segments of female 
with paired short, conical, egg-laying appendages; mouthparts 
free, their tips visible. 

ORDER LEPISMATOIDEA. 

(ZYGENTOMA.) 

Rather small, very active, wingless, terrestrial forms, with the 
body narrow, flattened and gradually attenuated posteriorly; 
body always clothed with scales; eyes small, not approximate; 
consisting of separated ocelli; tergites weakly developed, but the 
pleurites and sternites strongly so; pro thorax as large and usually 
much larger than the mesothorax; tarsi two- join ted; two pairs 
of thoracic and eight pairs of abdominal spiracles; no power of 
springing. 

(Lepisma [L. saccharina. Bristle-tail), Gastrotheus].) (PL 16, figs. 378, 387). 

LEPISMATIDJE 

ORDER MACHILOIDEA. 

(ARCHEOGNATHA.) 

Rather small active wingless, terrestrial forms, with the body 
convex above and somewhat compressed, gradually tapering pos- 
teriorly; body clothed with scales; eyes very large, meeting or 
nearly so; tergites strongly developed, extending to the under side 
of the body, the pleurites and sternites greatly reduced; prothorax 
smaller than the mesothorax; tarsi three- jointed; two pairs of 
thoracic and seven pairs of abdominal spiracles; insects capable 
of springing. 
(MSchilis.) MACHILID^E 

CLASS CAMPODEOIDEA. 

(DIPLURA.) 

Small, slender, wingless insects incapable of springing and of 
sluggish habits; body never clothed with scales; antennae usually 
many jointed; eyes absent; abdomen consisting of eleven segments, 
the last segment either more or less covered by the preceding 
or fused with it; no ventral tube, but the first to the seventh or 
7 



82 Key to Families of North American Insects. 

the second to the seventh segments are provided with ventral 
styles; apex of abdomen without median process, but with paired 
cerci; mouthparts partly concealed within the head, but the 
palpi extended; tarsi one-jointed; no metamorphosis. 

ORDER RHABDURA. 

Very thinly chitinized, small, slender, terrestrial insects with 
somewhat flattened body; abdomen ending in long, or rather long, 
jointed cerci. 

1. Occiput of the head small and hardly distinct from the vertex; first ventral 
segment with four posterior processes; cerci short, robust, six-jointed, per- 
forated at apex; ten spiracles. (Anajapyx) (PL 16, fig. 386). 

PROJAPYGIDJE 

Occiput rather large and distinct from the vertex; first ventral segment with 
two posterior processes; cerci long, slender and apically imperf orate; three 
spiracles. (Campddea.) (PI. 16, fig. 279.) CAMPODfilD^E 

ORDER DICELLURA. 

(URATOCHEILA.) 

Rather delicate terrestrial insects with somewhat flattened 
body, the abdomen ending in a pair of strong one-jointed forceps; 
first ventral segment with two short styles and two submedian 
hairy papillae. 
(Japyx) (PI. 16, figs. 382, 383) JAPYGIDJE 

CLASS COLLEMBOLA. 

Minute, wingless, springing insects; body sometimes clothed 
with scales; abdomen consisting of six segments and never ter- 
minated by caudal filaments or pincers-like appendages; ventral 
tube always present; a forked leaping appendage usually present 
beneath the abdomen. Eyes of degenerate compound type; 
palpi vestigial; antennae with four to six joints; tarsi one-jointed; 
no metamorphosis. 

ORDER ARTHROPLEONA. 

Body lengthened, subcylindrical; the abdomen composed of 
six free segments, the fourth segment often much lengthened; 
heart with six pairs of ostioles. 



Symphypleona Protura. 83 

1. Furcula wanting; body naked or hairy, never with scales; antennae four-jointed, 

often poorly-developed; claws two or one; sluggish species. (Anurida, 

Neanura) (ANURIDIDM) APHORURDXE 

Furcula present 2 

2. Furcula attached to the penultimate abdominal segment; body sometimes 

clothed with scales; antennas four- to six-jointed; claws two. (Is6toma, 
Orchesella, Tomocerus) (PL 16, figs. 380, 381). 

(DEGEERIID&) ENTOMOBRYID^E 

Furcula attached to the antepenultimate abdominal segment; body without 
scales; antenna four-jointed; claws two or one. (Podfcra, Achortites.) 

(ACHORUTIDfi) PODURnXffi 

ORDER SYMPHYPLEONA. 

Body shortened; abdomen globose, its segments in part fused; 
head usually vertical; ventral tube always long and well developed, 
usually with two long, exsertile filaments; furcula well developed; 
no post antennal organ; heart with two pairs of ostioles. 

1 . Last joint of the antennae long, usually divided into false ring joints (annul!) ; 

upper claw unindentate. (Sminthurus.) (PL 16, fig. 384). 

SMINTHURIIXE 
Last joint of antennae short, not ringed 2 

2. Last joint of antennas with whorls of hairs; the distal part of the third joint 

annulate; head vertical; filaments of ventral tube long; thorax shorter than 

the abdomen. (Papfrius.) PAPIRfaD^ 

Distal joints of antennae simple; head horizontal; filaments of ventral tube 
represented by two rounded tubercles; thorax longer than the abdomen. 
(Neelus, Megalothdrax.) (MEGALOTHORACIDfi) NEELIDJE 

CLASS MLRIENTOMATA. 

Minute, delicate, wingless, terrestrial, blind species. Body 
bare; antennae absent, abdomen comprising eleven segments and 
a short anal tube, the basal three segments furnished with styles; no 
cerci; mouthparts, formed for sucking, but retracted within the 
head. 

[ORDER PROTURA. 

f Slender, head pear-shaped, labrum medially narrowed to a 
beak, mandibles long and slender; prothorax short; legs short, 
tarsi one-jointed. 
(Eosentomon) (PL 16, fig. 385) EOSENTOMDXffi 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 

PLATE 1. 

Phasmoidea, Orthoptera, Derniaptera. 

1. Pseudomeryle. (CaudeU) [Phasmidse] 

2. Conocephalus. (Blatchley) [Locustidae] 

3. Ceuthophilus. (Blatchley) [Locustidse] 

4. Anabrus. (CaudeU) [Locustidse] 

5. Tridactylus, wings. (Handlirsch) [Trjdactylidse] 

6. Tettix, side view of pronotum. (Packard) [Tettigidse] 

7. Caloptenus, side view of pronotum. (Packard) [Acridiidte] 

8. Acridium, hind leg. (Lugger) [Acridiidse] 

9. Gryllotalpa, front leg. (Berlese) [Gryllotalpidse] 

10. Tettigidea. (Blatchley) [Tettigidse] 

11. Tettix, wings. (Handlirsch) [Tettigidse] 

12. Gryllus, fore wing. (Handlirsch) [Gryllidse] 

13. (Ecanthus, fore wing. (Handlirsch) [Gryllidse] 

14. Gryllotalpa, wings. (Handlirsch) [Gryllotalpidse] 

15. Propyragra. (Burr) [Pygidicranidse] 

16. Doru. (Burr) [Forficulidss] 

17. Labidura. (Burr) [Labiduridse] 

18. Hind wing of Earwig. [Forficulidse] 



S4 



PLATE 1. 




18 



B. B. Brue<j, del. 



PHASMOIDEA, ORTHOPTERA, DERMAPTERA. 



PLATE 2. 

Grylloblattoidea, Thysanoptera, Mantoidea, 
Blattoidea, Zoraptera, Isoptera, Corrodentia, Siphunculata, Mallophaga. 

19. Grylloblatta. (Walker) [Grylloblattidae] 

20. Thrips. [Thripidse] 

21. HeUothrips. (Russell) [Thripidse] 

22. Stagmomantis. (Rehn & Hebard) [Mantidse] 

23. Bktella. [Blattidse] 

24. Tennes, wing. (Handlirsch) [Termitidse] 

25. Blatta, wings. [Blattidse] 

26. Zorotypus. (Silvestri) [Zorotypidse] 

27. Eutermes, head. [Termitidse] 

28. Eutermes, mandible. [Tennitidse] 

29. Psocus, wings. (Comstock & Needham) [Psocidse] 
80. Troctes. (Mariatt) [Atropidee] 

31. Euthrips, tip of abdomen showing ovipositor. (Russell) [Thripidse] 

32. Pediculus. (Patton & Cragg) [Pediculidse] 

83. Phthirius. (Patton & Cragg) [Pediculidse] 

84. Docophorus. (Paine) [Philopteridse] 

85. Lipeurus. (Paine) [Philopteridse] 



86 



PLATE 2. 




B. B. Brues, del. 

GRYLLOBLATTOIDEA, THYSANOPTERA, MANTOIDEA, BLATTOIDEA, 
ZORAPTERA, ISOPTERA, CORRODENTIA, SIPHUNCULATA, MALLO- 
PHAGA. 



PLATE S. 
Hymenoptera. 

36. Xyela, fore wings. (Macgillivray) [Xyelidse] 

37. Dolerus, wings. [Tenthredinidse] 

38. Aulacus, wings. [Evaniidse] 

39. Tremex, wings. [Siricidse] 

40. Rhogas, wings. [Braconidse] 

41. Pelecinus, wings. [Pelecinidse] 

42. Ophion, wings. [Ichneumonidse] 

43. Foenus, wings. [Evaniidse] 

44. Chalcidoidea, fore wing (diagrammatic) Sm. submarginal vein; M, marginal 

vein; Pm, postmarginal vein; St, stigmal vein. [Chalcididse] 

45. Sphaerophthalma, wings. [Mutillidse] 

46. Cynipoidea, fore wing, (diagrammatic) (Kieffer) 

47. Chrysis, wings. [Chrysididre] 

48. Myzine, wings of male. [Myzinidse] 

49. Myzine, wings of female. [Myzinidae] 

50. Psammochares, wings. [Psammocharidse] 

51. Tachytes, wings. [Larridae] 

52. Bembez, wings. [Bembecidse] 

53. Vespa, wings. [Vespidse] 

54. Cerceris, wings. [Philanthidse] 

55. Eucerceris, wings. [Philanthidse] 

56. Gorytes, wings. [Gorytidse] 

57. Isodontia, wings. [Sphegidse] 

58. Trypoxylon, wings. [Trypoxylonidse] 

59. Eumenes, wings. [Eumenidse] 



PLATE 3. 




- 



B. B. Brues, del. 



HYMENOPTERA. 



PLATE 4. 
Hymenoptera. 

60. Hind leg of bee. (RUey) 

61. Hind leg of bee. (Riley) 

62. Hind leg of bee. (Riley) 

63. Ichneumon, basal segments of leg; tr. two-jointed trochanter. (Sharp) 

[Ichneumonidse] 

64. Elasmus, basal segments of leg; tr., two-jointed trochanter (Silvestri) [Elas- 

midse] 

65. Ponera, winged 9 ; 1, node or basal segment of abdomen. (Wheeler) [For- 

micidse] 

66. Tachytes, underside of thorax; M., mesosternum; P.. its posterior process; 

C.,coxse. (Williams) [Larridse] 

67. Myrmica, thorax and basal segments of abdomen: 1, 2, 3, first three abdominal 

segments. (Wheeler) [Formicidse] 

68. Pteromalus, thorax from above; P., pronotum; M., mesonotum, T., tegula; 

A., axilla; S., scutellum. [Pteromalidse] 

69. Chalcidoidea, diagram of antenna; P., pedicel; R.. ring-joints; F., funicle; 

C., club. 

70. Dibrachys, antenna of female. [Pteromalidse] 

71. Same, male. [Pteromalidse] 

72. Bephratoides. (Brues) [Eurytomidse] 

73. Eulophus, thorax from side. (Silvestri) Lettering as in fig. 68. [Eulophidse] 

74. Telenomus. [Scelionidse] 

76. Chlorion, thorax from above. (Fernald) Lettering as in fig. 68. [Sphecidse] 

76. Bracon. (Hunter & Hinds) [Braconidse] 

77. Chlorion, lateral view of thorax and abdomen. (Fernald) [Sphecidse] 

78. Vespa, head from front. (Schmiedeknecht) [Vespidse] 

79. Ichneumon, apex of abdomen with ovipositor. [Ichneumonidse] 

80. Coccophagus. (Howard) [Eulophidse] 

81. Apis, hind leg. (Smith) [Apidse] 

82. Epeolus, apex of abdomen, with sting. (Brues) [Melectidse] 

83. Cladius. (Chittenden) [Tenthredinidse] 



90 



PLATE 4. 




B. B. Brues, del. 



HYMENOPTERA. 



PLATE 5. 

Hymenoptera, Coleoptera. 

84. Vanhornia. (Crawford) [Vanhorniidse] 

85. Cryptus. [Ichnuemonidse] 

86. Ceraphron, head. [Ceraphronidse] 

87. Serphus. (Brues) [Serphidse] 

88. Niteliopsis, antenna of female. (Williams) [Larridse] 

89. Larropsis, front tarsus of female. (Williams) [Larridse] 

90. Head of long-tongued bee. (Cockerell) 

91. Apis, head. (Chesire) at, antenna; md., mandible; 1m., labrum; mx., maxillary 

palpus; lp., labial palpus, lb., labium. [Apidse] 

92. Gonatopus, front tarsus of female. [Dryinidse] 

93. Loxotropa, antenna. [Diapriidse] 

94. Dermestes. (Howard & Marlatt) [Dermestidae] 

95. Staphylinus. [Staphylinidse] 

96. Silvanus. (Chittenden) [Cucujidse] 

97. Brachinus. [Carabidse] 

98. Chiysobothris. (Chittenden) [Buprestidse] 

99. Epicauta. (Bruner) [Meloidse] 

100. Elaphidion. (Forbes) [Cerambycidse] 

101. Cybister. (Maxwell-Lefroy) [Dytiscidss] 

102. Bruchus. (Felt) [Bruchidie] 

103. Lyctus. (Hopkins) [Lyctidse] 

104. Dkbrotica. (Chittenden) [Chrysomelidse] 

105. Tenebrio. (Girault) [Tenebrionidse] 

106. Balaninus. (Chittenden) [Curculionidse] 

107. Lachnosterna. (Forbes) [Scarabseidse] 



PLATE 5. 




B. B. Brues, del. 



HYMENOPTERA, COLEOPTERA. 



PLATE 6. 

Coleoptera. V 

108. Harpalus, underside. (Hayward) [Carabidse] 

109. Necrophorus, upper side, wings spread on left side and removed on right. 

(Hayward) [Silphidse] 

110. Hydrophilus, wing. [Hydrophilidee] 

111. Hydrophilus, mesostemum. (Berlese) [Hydrophilidse] 

112. Hykstes, dorsal outline of head and prothorax. (Felt) [Ipidse] 

113. Prosternum of beetle, showing coxal cavities confluent and open behind. 

[Wickham] 

114. Prosternum of beetle, showing coxal cavities separated and open behind. 

[Wickham] 

115. Brenthus, head from above. (Berlesse) [Brenthidse] 

116. Platypus, dorsal outline of head and prothorax. (Felt) [Platypodidse] 

117. Gyrinus, hind leg. (Berlese) [Gyrinidae] 

118. Epilachna, hind leg. (Silvestri) [Coccinellidse] 

119. Prosternum of beetle, showing coxal cavities separated and closed behind. 

[Wickham] 

120. Epilachna, head from above. [Silvestri] [Coccinellidse] 

121. Epilachna, head from below. (Silvestri) [Coccinellidse] 

122. Pityogenes, front leg. (Felt) [Ipidse] 

123. Coccinella. [Coccinellidse] 

124. Haliplus, c, coxal plate. (Maxwell-Lefroy) [Haliplidie] 

125. Curculionidae, side view of head. 



PLATE 6. 




v "^^ 



B. B. Brues, del. 



COLEOPTERA. 



PLATE 7. 
Coleoptera. 

126. Ludius, antenna. [Elateridse] 

127. Prionocyphon, antenna. [Helodidse] 

128. Corymbites, antenna. [Elateridse] 

129. Acneus, antenna. [Helodidse] 

130. Dendroides, antenna. [Pyrochroidse] 

131. Dorcatoma, antenna. [Anobiidse] 

132. Aulicus, antenna. [Cleridse] 

133. Corynetes, antenna. [Corynetidse] 

134. Brontes, antenna. [Cucujidse] 

135. Temnochilus, antenna. [Ostomatidse] 

136. Catoptrichus, antenna. [Silphidse] 

137. Colon, antenna. [Silphidse] 

138. Bryaxis, antenna. [Pselaphidse] 

139. Anogdus, antenna. [Silphidse] 

140. Liodes, antenna. [Silphidse] 

141. Epierus. antenna. [Histeridse] 

142. Phymaphora, antenna. [Mycetseidse] (Figs. 126-142 from Leconte & Horn) 

143. Macronychus, apical portion of tarsus. [Parnidse] 

144. Heterocerus, antenna. [Heteroceridse] 

145. Dasycerus, antenna. [Lathridiidse] 

146. Rhysodes, antenna. [Rhysodidse] 

147. Dineutes, antenna. [Gyrinidse] 

148. Adranes, antenna. [Pselaphidse] 

149. Lucanus, antenna. [Lucanidse] 

150. Bolbocerus, antenna. [Scarabseidse] 

151. Lachnosterna, antenna. (Scarabseidse] (Figs. 144-151 from Leconte & Horn) 

152. Anthrenus, antenna. (Felt) [Dermestidae] 

153. Sitones, antenna. (Silvestri) [Curculionidse] 

154. Ips, antenna. (Felt) [Ipidse] 

155. Dendroctonus, antenna. (Felt) [Ipidse] 

156. Platypus, tibia and tarsus of front leg. (Felt) [Platypodidse] 

157. Leptinotarsa, tarsus. (Sharp) [Chrysomelidse] 

158. Tachypus, wing; illustrating type 1 of wing venation in Coleoptera. (Kem- 

pers) [Carabidse] 

159. Omma, wing; illustrating type 1, (Kempers) [Ommadidse] 

160. Necrophorus, wing; illustrating type 2. (Kempers) [Silphidse] 

161. Lygistopterus, wing; illustrating type 3. (Kempers) [Lycidse] 

162. Erineophilus, front tibia. (Felt) [Ipidse] 

163. Adimerus, tarsus. (Sharp) [Adimeridse] 

164. Scarites, front leg. (Kolbe) [Carabidse] 

165. Dytiscus, front tibia and tarsus of male. (Kolbe) [Dytiscidse] 

166. Mordellistena. [Mordellidse] 

167. Saperda, apical part of tarsus. [Cerambycidse] 

168. Megalodachne, tarsus. [Erotylidze] 

96 



PLATE 7. 



126' 127 . 128.. 129 130 ^ 131 J32 133 \ J3 4 




. B. Brues. del. 
8 



COLEOPTERA. 



PLATE 8. 

Strepsiptera, Embiidaria, Odonata, Megaloptera, Plectoptera, Plecoptera, 
Neuroptera, Raphidoidea. 

169. Stylops. (Pierce) [Xenidse] 

170. Anthericomma, antenna of male. (Pierce) [Halictophagidse] 

171. Xenos, wing of male. (Kirby) [Xenidse] 

172. Xenos, head of female. (Brues) [Xenida;] 

173. Anisembia. (Melander) [Embiidse] 

174. Donaconethis, wings. (Enderlein) [Olynthidse] 

175. Camocholax, antenna of male. (Pierce) [Xenidse] 

176. Libellula, head. (Hyatt & Arms) [Libellulidse] 

177. Mantispa, wings. (Handlirsch) [Mantispidse] 

178. Libellula, wings. [Libellulidse] 

179. Corydalis, wings. (Handlirsch) [Corydalidse] 

180. Chloroperla. [Perlidse] 

181. Chirotenetes, wings. (Needham) [Ephemeridse] 

182. Perla, tarsus. [Perlidse] 

183. Caenis, wing. (Needham) [Ephemeridse] 

184. Dilar, wings. (Handlirsch) ]DiIarid82] 

185. Raphidia, wings. (Handlirsch) [Raphidiidse] 

186. Chauliodes, wings. [Corydalidse] 

187. Perla, wings. [Perlidaj] 

188. Mantispa, head and prothorax from above. [Mantispidse] 

189. Mantispa, raptorial front leg. [Mantispidse] 



PLATE 8. 




B. B. Brues, del. 

STREPSIPTERA, EMBIDIIARIA, ODONATA, MEGALOPTERA, PLEC- 
TOPTERA, PLECOPTERA, NEUROPTERA, RAPHIDIOIDEA. 



PLATE 9. 
Panorpatse, Trichoptera, Lepidoptera. 

190. Panorpa, wings. [Panorpidse] 

191. Panorpa, head from side. (Packard) [Panorpidse] 

192. Panorpa, head from front. (Packard) [Panorpidse] 

193. Bittacus. [Bittacusidse] X0.5 

194. Panorpa. [Panorpidse] X0.5 

195. Limnephilus, wings. [Limnephilidse] 

196. Limnephilus. [Limnephilidse] XI 

197. Hydropsyche, wings. (Ubner) [Hydropsychidse] 

198. Hydropsyche, head. [Hydropsychidse] 

199. Eriocephala, wing. (Forbes) Sc., subcosta; R., radius; M., media; Cu., cubitus; 

A., anal (their branches indicated by numbers); hum., humeral crossvein; 
udcv., upper discocellular vein (radio-medial crossvein); Idcv., lower disco- 
cellular vein; i., intercalated cell; ac. c., accessory cell. [Eriocephalidse] 

200. Portion of bleached wing membrane, showing points of attachment of scales 

and aculese (prickles). (Forbes) 

201. Setomorpha, wings. (Busck) [Tineidse] 

202. Noctua. (Forbes) Lettering as in fig. 199. [Noctuidse] 

203. Pterophorus, wings. (Berlese) [Pterophoridse] 

204. Orneodes, wings. (Berlese) [Orneodidse] 

205. Harrisina, wings. (Jones) [Pyromorphidse] 

206. Coleophora, wings. [Cosmopterygidse] 

207. Pronuba, mouthparts. (Packard) m. p., maxillary palpus; pi., palpifer. 

[Prodoxidse] 

208. Mompha, wings. (Busck) [Cosmopterygidse] 

209. Agnippe, wings. (Busck) [Gelechiidse] 

210. PapiKo, wings. (Comstock) [Papilionidse] 

211. Prionoxystus, wings. (Comstock & Needham) [Cossidse] 

212. Coptotriche, wings. (Walsingham) [Tischeriidse] 



100 



PLATE 9. 




B. B. Brues, del. 



PANORPA'LE, TRICHOPTERA, LEPIDOPTERA. 



PLATE 10. 
Lepidoptera. 

213. Epargyreus, last joint of tarsus of male. (Scudder) a, dorsal view; b, latera 

view. [Hesperiidse] 

214. Chrysophanus, details of leg. (Scudder) a, front leg of male with tarsal 

joints on left more enlarged; b, front leg of female with last tarsal joint on 
left more enlarged; c, middle leg of male. [Lycsenidse] 

215. Calephelis, details of legs. (Scudder) a, tibia and tarsus of front leg of male, 

with tarsus on left more enlarged; b, tibia and tarsus of front leg of female, 
with last joint on left more enlarged; c, tibia and tarsus of middle leg of male. 
[Lemoniidse] 

216. Plumose antenna of moth. (Duncan) 

217. Euphydryas, details of legs. (Scudder) a, tibia and tarsus of front leg of 

male, with last joints of tarsus on left more enlarged; b, tibia and tarsus 
of front leg of female with last joints of tarsus below more enlarged; c, 
tibia and tarsus of middle leg of male. [Nymphalidse] 

218. Cissia, details of legs. (Scudder) a, tibia and tarsus of front leg of male, 

with tarsus on left more enlarged; b. tibia and tarsus of front leg of female, 
with tarsus on left more enlarged; c, tibia and tarsus of middle leg of male. 
[Agapetidse] 

219. Antenna of skipper, apical portion. (Duncan) [Hesperiidse} 

220. Antenna of butterfly, apical portion. (Duncan) 

221. Bembecia, middle leg. (Beutenmiiller) [Sesiidae] 

222. Scales from the wings of various Lepidoptera. (Scudder) 

223. Crambus, lateral outline of body. (Fernald) m., maxillary palpus; I., labial 

palpus. [Pyralididae] 

224. Antenna of moth. (Duncan) 

225. Pterophorus, hind leg of male. (Fernald) [Pterophoridse] 

226. Hypoprepia, wings. (Hampson) [Lithosiidse] 

227. Alypiodes, wings. (Hampson) [Agaristidse] 

228. Hemiceras, wings. (Hampson) [Notodontidse] 

229. Melittia, head. (Beutenmiiller) [Sesiidse] 

230. Ephestia, wings. (Chittenden) [Pyralididse] 

231. Platyptilia, wings. (Fernald) [Pterophoridaj] 

232. Melittia, wings. (Beutenmiiller) [Sesiidse] 

233. Nigeria, wings. (Holland) [Nolidse] 

234. Anosia, head from front. (Scudder) a., base of antenna; e., eye; p., base of 

proboscis. [Lymnadidse] 

235. Anosia, wings. (Scudder) [Lymnadidse] 

236. Euvanessa, head, prothorax and front of mesothorax. (Scudder) [Nymph- 

alidse] 

237. Epargyreus, side view of head. (Scudder) [Hesperiidse) 

238. Arotura, wings. (Walsingham) [Cosmopterygidse] 

239. Gnorimoschema, head from side. (Busck) [Gelechiidee] 



102 



PLATE 10. 




B. B. Brues, del. 



LEPIDOPTERA. 



PLATE 11. 

Diptera. 

240. Tipula. [Tipulidse] 

241. Bibio. [Bibionidse] 

242. Mayetiola. [Cecidomyiidse] 

243. Simulium. (Lugger) [Simuliidse] 

244. Sargus. (Verrall) [Stratiomyiidse] 

245. Acrocera. (Verrall) [Cyrtidse] 

246. Pantophthalmus. [Pantophthalmidse] 

247. Tabanus. [Tabanidse] 

248. Scenopinus (Verrall) [Scenopinidse] 

249. Bombylius. (Verrall) [Bombyliidse] 

250. Paraspiniphora. (Verrall) [Phoridse] 

251. Euhybos. [Empididse] 

252. Physocephala. (Lugger) [Conopidse] 

253. Belvosia. [Tachinidffi] 

254. Lonchoptera. (Verrall) [Lonchopteridaej 

255. Sphaerocera. (Howard) [Borboridse] 

256. Ostinis. (Lugger) [Chloropidse] 

257. Pseudolfersia. (Lugger) [Hippoboscidse] 



104 



PLATE 11. 



240 




A. L. Melander, del. 



DIPTERA. 



PLATE 12. 
DJptera. 

258. Tabanus, wing. (Williston) a. c. v., anterior crossvein; p. c. v., small cross- 

vein [Tabanidse] 

259. Musca, apex of tarsus, showing bristle-shaped empodium. (Kellogg) [Mus- 

cidse] 
60. Thereva, wing. [Therevidse] 

261. Leptis, end of tarsus showing empodium. [Rhagionidse] 

262. Perrisia, antenna of male. (Verrall) [Cecidomyiidse] 

263. Pericoma, wing. [Psychodidse] 

264. Stichopogon, wing. [Asilidae] 

265. Anthrax, wing. [Bombyliidse] 

266. Bibio, antenna. (Verrall) [Bibionidse] 

267. Culex, wing. [Culicidse] 

268. Empis, wing. [Empididse] 

269. Bittacomorpha, wing. [Ptychopteridse] 

270. Pktypalpus, wing. [Empididse] 

271. Scatophaga, wing. [Scatophagidse] 

272. Simulium, antenna. (Verrall) [Simuliidse] 

273. Tipula, wing. [Tipulida] 

274. Dolichopus, wing. [Dolichopodidse] 

275. Euxesta, wing. [Ortalididse] 

276. Rhypus, antenna. (Verrall) [Rhyphidse] 

277. Blepharocera, wing. (Comstock) [Blepharoceridse] 

278. Lonchoptera, wing. [Lonchopteridse] 

279. Trixoscelis, wing. [Geomyzidse] 

280. Ceroplatus, wing. [Mycetophilidse] 

281. Eristalis, wing. [Syrphidse] 

282. Meoneura, wing. [Milichiidse] 

283. Tabanus, antenna. (Verrall) [Tabanidse] 

284. Orphnephila, wing. (Williston) [Orphnephilidse] 

285. Pktypeza, wing. [Platypezidse] 

286. Xylophagus, antenna. (Verrall) [Xylophagidse] 

287. Co2nomyia, antenna. (Verrall) [Ccenomyiidse] 

288. Rhyphus, wing. [Rhyphidse] 

289. Pipunculus, wing. [Pipunculidse] 

290. Rhachicerus, antenna of female. (Vollenhoven) [Xylophagidse] 

291. Chrysopik, wing. [Rhagionidse] 

292. Conops, wing. [Conopidse] 

293. Thereva, antenna. (Verrall) [Therevidse] 

294. Bombylius, antenna. (Verrall) [Bombyliidse] 

295. Rhynchocephalus, wing. (Williston) [Nemestrinidse] 

296. Musca, wing. [Muscidse] 

297. Gonia, antenna. (Williston) [Tachinidse] 

298. Mydas, wing. (Mydaidse] 

299. Dolichopus, antenna. [Dolichopodidse] 

300. Drapetis, antenna. (Williston) [Empididse] 

301. Volucella, antenna. (Williston) [Syrphidse] 

106 



PLATE 12. 




295 




32X! 1^~% 



A. L. Melander, del. 



DIPTERA. 



PLATE 13. 
Diptera, Suctoria, Hemiptera. 

802. Caffiphora, thorax from above. (Walton) Ac., achrostichal bristles; DC., 
dorsocentral bristles; H., humeral bristles; IA., intra-alar bristles; NP., noto- 
pleural bristles; PH., posthumeral bristles; PrS., presutural bristles; SA., 
supraalar bristles; PA., postalar bristles; Sc., scutellum; c., calypteres; hp., 
hypopleura; mp., meso- pleura; pa., postalar callosity; pp., propleura; ptp., 
pteropleura; stp., sternopleura; h., humerus; p., anterior portion of meso- 
thorax (prozona); m., posterior portion of mesothorax (metazona) [Calli- 
phoridse] 

303. Calliphora, thorax from side. (Walton) Lettering as in fig. 302. [Calli- 

phoridse] 

304. Calliphora, head from front. (Walton) a., antenna; ar., arista; ch., cheek; 

e., eye; fo., fronto-orbital bristles; fs., frontal suture; in., interfrontalia; o., 
ocellar bristles; ve., vertical bristles. [Calliphoridse] 

305. CalUphora, head from side. (Walton) Lettering as in fig. 304. [Calli- 

phoridse] 

306. Ceratophyllus, antenna. (Fox) [Pulicidse] 

307. Ceratophyllus, hind tibia. (Fox) [Pulicidse] 

308. Ctenocephalus, hind tibia. (Fox) [Pulicidae] 

309. Ceratophyllus. (Patton & Cragg) [Pulicidse] 

310. Dermatophilus. (Butler) [Dermatophilidse] 

311. XenopsyUa, head from side. (Fox) [Pulicidse] 

312. Ctenocephalus, antenna. (Patton & Cragg) [Pulicidse] 

313. Nepa, wings. (Handlirsch) [Nepidse] 

314. Catacantha, wings. (Kirkaldy) [Pentatomidse] 

315. Acanthia, wings. (Handlirsch) Acanthiidse] 

316. Conorhinus, wings. (Patton & Cragg) Em., embolium; Cl., clavus; C., 

corium; Mb, membranaceous area. [Reduviidse] 

317. Anasa, antenna. (Tower) [Coreidse] 

318. Anasa, wings. (Tower) [Coreidse] 

319. Reduvius, tip of tibia and tarsus. (Eysell) [Reduviidse] 

320. Anasa, leg. (Tower) [Coreidse] 

321. Cimex, tip of tibia and tarsus. (Eysell) [Cimicidse] 
822. Corixa. (Handlirsch) [Corixidse.] 



108 



PLATE 13. 



303 




322 



B. B. Brues, del. 



DIPTERA, SUCTORIA, HEMIPTERA. 



PLATE 14. 

H c mip t e ra , Homoptcrfl. 

323. Notonecta. (Miall) [Notonectidse] 

324. Nepa. (Miall) [Nepidse] 

325. Halticus. (Distant) [Miridse] 

326. Hydrometra. (Miall) [Hydrometridse] 

327. Gerris. (Miall) [Gerridse] 

328. Corixa, front leg. (Kolbe) [Corixidse] 

329. Corixa. (Miall) [Corixidse] 

330. Cimex. (Patton & Cragg) [Cimicidse] 

331. Corizus. (Hambleton) [Corizidse] 

332. Euschistus. [Pentatomidse] 

333. Polyctenes. (Westwood) [Polyctenidse] 

334. Leptoglossus. (Chittenden) [Coreidae] 

335. Aradus. (Howard) [Aradidse] 

336. Henicocephalus. (Maxwell-Lefroy) [Henicocephalidse] 

337. Triphleps. (McGregor) [Anthocoridse] 

338. Conorhinus. (Chagas) [Reduviidse] 

339. Cicada, hind leg. (Kolbe) [Cicadidse] 

340. Corythuca. [Tingitidse] 

341. Anasa, prothorax and head. (Hyatt & Arms) [Coreidse] 

342. Lethocerus. (Smith) [Belostomatidse] 

343. Blissus. (Webster) [Myodochidse] 

344. Icerya, antenna of female. (Riley) [Coccidse] 

345. EntyUa, hind leg. (Branch) [Membracidse] 

346. Icerya, tarsus of female. (Riley) [Coccidse] 

347. Entylia, antenna. (Branch) [Membracidse] 



110 



PLATE 14. 




B. B. Brues, del. 



HEMIPTERA, HOMOPTERA. 



PLATE 15. 
Homoptera. 

348. Cicada, wings. [Cicadidse] 

349. Cicada, head from front. (Berlese) [Cicadidse] 

350. Ceresa. (Marlatt) [Membracidse] 

351. Ceresa, antenna. (Marlatt) [Membracidse] 

352. Ceresa, fore wing. (Marlatt) [Membracidse] 

353. Typhlocyba, wings. [Typhlocybidse] 

354. Tettigoniella. (Ball) [Proconiidse] 

355. Oncometopia, fore wing. (Ball) [Jassidse] 

356. Poiocera, wings. (Metcalf) [Fulgoridse] 

357. Gypona, wings. (Metcalf) [Proconiidae] 

358. Onnenis. (Swezey) [Flatidse] 

359. Libumia, wings. (Metcalf) [Delphacidse] 

360. Otiocerus, wings. (Metcalf) [Derbidse] 

361. Amphiscepha. (Swezey) [Flatidse] 

362. Dkspis, female. (Howard) [Coccidrel 

363. Rhizococcus, female, tip of tibia and tarsus. (Packard) [Coccidse] 

364. Palaeococcus, hind leg. [Coccidse] 

365. Aspidiotus, male. (Howard) [Coccidse] 

366. Scolops. (Smith) [Cixiidse] 

367. Scolops, fore wing. (Metcalf) [Cixiidse] 



112 



PLATE 16. 



348 




B. B. Brues, del. 



HOMOPTERA. 



PLATE 16. 

Homoptera, Lepismatoidea, Machiloidea, Rhabdura, Dicellura, Arthropleona, 
Symphypleona, Protura. 

368. Trioza, wings. (Patch) [Psyllidse] 

369. Aleyrodes, tarsus. (Quaintance) [Aleyrodidse] 

370. Entylia. (Branch) [Membracidse] 

371. Pachypsylla, wings. (Patch) [Psyllidse] 

372. Entylia, head from front. (Branch) [Membracidse] 

373. Macrosiphum, wings. (Patch) [Aphididae] 

374. Aphis. (Chittenden) [Aphididse] 

375. Aleyrodes. (Bemis) [Aleyrodidae] 

376. Cicada, head from above. (Maxwell-Lefroy) [Cicadidse] 

377. Jassid, head from above. (Maxwell-Lefroy) [Jassidse] 

378. Lepisma. (Butler) [Lepismatidse] 

379. Campodea. (Maxwell-Lefroy) [Campodeidse] 

380. Tomocerus. (Folsom) [Entomobryidse] 

381. Isotoma. (Imms) [Entomobryidae] 

382. Parajapyx, apex of abdomen. (Silvestri) [Japygidse] 

383. Japyx, from below. (Berlese) [Japygidae] 

384. Sminthurus. (Sharp) [Sminthuridse] 

385. Acerentomon. (Silvestri) [Eosentomidse] 

386. Anajapyx. (Silvestri) [Projapygidee] 

387. Gastrotheus. (Silvestri) [Lepismatidse] 



114 



PLATE 16. 



372 




B. B. Brues, del. 

HOMOPTERA, LEPISMATOIDEA, MACHILOIDEA, RHABDURA, DICEL- 
LURA, ARTHROPLEONA, SYMPHYPLEONA, PROTURA. 



PLATE 17. 
Immature Stages of Various Insects. 

888. Calosoma, larva. (Duncan) [Coleoptera: Carabidse] 

389. Dytiscus, larva. (Maxwell-Lefroy) [Coleoptera: Dytiscidse] 

890. Phryganeid larva. (Duncan) [Trichoptera] 

891. Lachnosterna, larva. (Forbes) [Coleoptera: Scarabseidse] 

892. Chrysopa, larva. (Chittenden) [Neuroptera: Chrysopidse] 

393. Mallodon, larva, lateral view. [Coleoptera: Cerambycidse] 

394. Same, ventral view. (Packard) 

395. Geometrid larva. (Packard) [Lepidoptera: Geometridse] 

396. Meknotus, larva. (Forbes) [Coleoptera; Elateridffi] 

397. Saw-fly larva. (Maxwell-Lefroy) [Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidse) 

398. Acherontia, larva. (Maxwell-Lefroy) [Lepidoptera: Sphingidse] 

399. Culex, larva. (Dyar) [Diptera: Culcidse] 

400. Hylastinus, larva. (Chittenden) [Coleoptera: Ipidse] 

401. Bruchus, larva. (Howard) [Coleoptera: Bruchidse] 

402. Anatis, larva. (Britton) [Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae] 

403. Simulium, larva. (Osborn) [Diptera: Simulidffi] 

404. Chrysobothris, larva. (Chittenden) [Coleoptera: Buprestidse] 

405. Musca, larva. (Howard) [Diptera- Muscidse] 

406. Pulex, larva. (Chittenden) [Suctoria: Pulicidse] 

407. Tipula, larva. (Needham) [Diptera: Tipulidse] 

408. Gelechia, pupa, under side. (Hunter) [Lepidoptera: Gelechiidee] 

409. Same, side view. (Hunter) 

410. Simulium, pupa. (Miall) [Diptera: Simuliida;] 

411. Lyctus, larva. (Hopkins) [Coleoptera: Lyctidse] 

412. Sialis, pupa. (Davis) [Megaloptera: Sialididse] 

413. CyUene, pupa. (Hopkins) [Coleoptera: Cerambycidse] 

414. Culex, pupa. (Knab) [Diptera: Culicidse] 



116 



PLATE 17. 




4$^^ 



^xnmD 



412 





B. B. Brues, del. 



IMMATURE STAGES OF VARIOUS INSECTS. 



PLATE 18. 
Various Terrestrial Arthropods, not Insects. 

415. Porcellio. (Richardson) [Crustacea] 

416. Scolopendra. (Newport) [Chilopoda] 

417. Scutigera. (Howard) [Chilopoda] 

418. Chelifer. (Ewing) fArachnida] 

419. Buthus. (Kneplin) [Arachnida] 

420. Galeodes. (Dufour) [Arachnida] 

421. Tegenaria. (Emerton) [Arachnida] 

422. Thelyphonus. (Knepelin) [Arachnida] 

423. Eurypelma. [Arachnida] 

424. Julus. (Stebbing) [Diplopoda] 

425. Argas. (Bishopp) [Arachnida] 

426. Protolophus. (Banks) [Arachnida] 

427. Tetranychus. (Woodworth) [Arachnida] 



118 



PLATE 18. 




B. B. Brues, del. 



TERRESTRIAL ARTHROPODS, NOT INSECTS. 



GLOSSARY OF SPECIAL TERMS. 1 

This glossary is intended to include only such entomological terms as are not easily 
understood from the figures referred to in the keys throughout the book, and other 
words only when their meaning in the keys might not be readily ascertained from 
an ordinary English dictionary. 

Abddmen, the hindermost of the three main body divisions. 
Adventitious, not regular, accidental or additional. 

Anal, pertaining to the last abdominal segment or to the hind basal angle of the wing. 
Annulated, incompletely divided into ring-like joints. 
Annulus, (-li), a ring or band. 
Antecoxal sclerite, a part of the metasternum in front of the hind coxae (Coleoptera) 

(PL 6, fig. 108). 

Antecubital crossveins, crossveins along the costal border toward the base (Odonata) . 
Antenna (-nse), a pair of jointed appendages of the head above the mouthparts. 
Appendiculate cell, a small indistinct cell distal to the marginal cell (Hymenoptera). 
Apterous, wingless. 
Arcuate, arched like a bow. 

Arculus, a basal crossvein between the radius and cubitus (Odonata). 
Arista, a bristle-like process at or near the end of the antennae (Diptera). 
Ardlium (-ia), a terminal pad of the foot between the claws. 
Attenuated, gradually tapering. 
Auxiliary vein, the subcostal vein of Diptera, anterior to the first longitudinal vein. 

(PL 12, fig. 258). 
Axilla (-lae), a triangular sclerite on each side of the scutellum (Hymenoptera) 

(PI. 4, fig. 68, A.) 
Basal cells, the two cells proximal to the anterior crossvein and the discal cell 

(Diptera) (PI. 12, fig. 258). 
Bifid, split into two parts. 
Bilobed, divided into two lobes. 
Calypteres, small membranous disks under the base of the wings (Diptera) (PL 

13, fig. 303, c.). 

Capitate, with a distinct knob at the tip. 
Carinate, ridged, or furnished with a raised line or keel. 
Caudal filaments or setae, thread-like processes terminating the abdomen. 
Cell, a space in the wing bounded by veins. 

Cercus (-ci), a pair of short appendages at the end of the abdomen. 
Cheek, the lateral part of the head between the eyes and the mouth. 
Chitin, the horn-like material forming the hard parts of the body wall. 
Clavate, clubbed or enlarged at the tip. 
Clavus, an oblong basal part along the inner edge of the fore wings (Heteroptera, 

Homoptera) (PL 13, fig. 316). 

i Where the plural form is unusual the differing termination is given in parentheses added to 
the last common letter of the root. 

121 



122 Key to Families of North American Insects. 

Clypeus, the sclerite bearing the labrum (Hymenoptera) ; a horseshoe-shaped sclerite 

under the margin of the mouth (Diptera). 
Coarctate, with narrowed base and enlarged tip. 

Compressed, flattened from side to side, as distinguished from depressed. 
C6nnate, immovably united, fused. 
Constricted, narrowed in the middle. 

Cdrium, an elongate middle part of the fore wing (Hemiptera) . 
Cdrneous, horn-like in texture. 

Costa, the front margin of the wing, considered as the first vein. 
Costal area, the part of the wing immediately behind the front margin. 
Costal cell, the space of the wing in front of the subcostal vein. 
C6xa (-xae), the basal joint of the leg, sometimes quite fused with the body. 
Ctenidium (-ia), a comb-like row of bristles. 
Cftbitus, the fifth of the main veins of the wing. 
Cursdrial, fitted for running. 

Declivity, the abruptly bent apex of the elytra (Coleoptera) . 
Decumbent, bending downward. 
Denticulate, with minute tooth-like projections. 
Dichoptic, eyes not touching (Diptera). 
Digitate, with finger-like processes. 

Dorsal, pertaining to the upper surface or back of the body. 
Dorsocentral bristles, several rows of bristles near the middle of the mesonotum 

(Diptera) (PI. 13, fig. 302, DC). 

Ectoparasite, a parasite which lives on the exterior of animals. 
Elytron (-ra), the horny upper wings, or wing covers, of beetles. 
Empddium (-ia), a single middle pad between the tarsal claws (Diptera). 
Epiphysis (-ses), a lappet-like process. 
Epipleura (-rse), the infolded edge of the elytra (Coleoptera). 
Epistome, the lowest part of the face. 
Epizoic, living on the outside of animals. 

Eye-cap, a group of modified scales overhanging the eye (Lepidoptera) . 
Facial plate, the central part of the face (Diptera). 
Femur (-mora), the thigh or third division of the legs. 
Filiform, hair-like, or filamentous, longer than setaceous. 
Flabellate, with fan-like processes or projections. 
Flabellum (-la), a leaf -like or fan-like process. 
Flagellum, the distal part of the antenna when lash-like. 
Fontanel, a small, depressed, pale spot on the front of the head between the eyes 

(Isoptera). 

F6rcipate, bearing pincers, or pincers-shaped. 
Frenulum, a strong spine at the front basal angle of the hind wings (Lepidoptera) 

(PI. 10, fig. 226). 

Front, the forehead, between the antennae, eyes and ocelli. 
FrontMia, the central strip of the front (Diptera) (PI. 13, fig. 304). 
Fr6ntal lunule, a small crescent-shaped space just above the antennae (Diptera) 

(PI. 13, fig. 304). 



Glossary of Special Terms. 123 

Fr6nto-6rbital bristles, several bristles along the front next the eyes (Diptera) 

(PI. 13, fig. 304). 
Furcula, the forked springing appendage below the end of the abdomen. (Collem- 

bola). 

Gena (-nae), the cheek. 
Geniculate, abruptly bent, elbowed. 
Genitalia, the external sexual organs. 
Gibbous, puffed out; hunch-backed. 
Glabrous, bald, smooth, free of hairs. 

Gonap6physis (-ses), the short conical egg-laying processes terminating the abdo- 
men. 
Graduated crossveins, an oblique row of crossveins forming steps across the wing 

(Neuroptera) . 
Gravid, filled with eggs. 
Gular suture, a longitudinal impressed line on each side of the gula or middle piece 

of the throat. 
Halter, a small knobbed appendage on each side of the thorax replacing the hind 

wings (Diptera). 

Haust ellate, mouth formed for sucking, the mandibles not fitted for chewing. 
Hemelytron (-ra), the modified fore wings of Hemiptera. 
Heteromerous, differing in the number of joints in the tarsi. 
Holoptic, eyes of the male meeting above the antennae (Diptera) . 
Homonomous, similar in form, function or development. 
Humeral angle, the inner front corner of the wing. 
Hyaline, more or I ss transparent. 
Hypopleural bristles, a more or less vertical row of bristles above the hind coxae 

(Diptera). 

Hypopygium, the last ventral plate; or the inflexed genitalia. 
Ingluvial, pertaining to the crop. 
Interfrontal bristles, minute bristles on the central part of the front (Diptera) (PI. 

13, fig. 304). 
Interstitial, occurring between two segments, e. g. the trochanter, linking the coxa 

and femur. 
Infra-alar bristles, several bristles above the root of the wing next to the dorsocen- 

trals (Diptera). 
Jugum, a lobe-like process at the base of the fore wings overlapping the hind wings 

(Lepidoptera) . 

Labellum (-la), the expanded sensitive tip of the proboscis (Diptera). 
Labium, the lower lip or second maxillae. 
Labrum, the upper lip. 
Lamella (-he), a leaf-like plate. 
Laminate, composed of leaf-like plates. 
Lanceolate, tapering at each end, spear-shaped. 
Larva (-vae), the earlier stages of an insect's life after hatching from the egg and 

before the pupal period. 

Lateral, at or pertaining to the side of the body. 
Ligula, the central part of the labium, borne by the mentum (Coleoptera). 



124 Key to Families of North American Insects. 

Lunule, a small crescent-shaped piece just above the antennae (Diptera). 

Mandibulate, with jaws fitted for chewing. 

Maxilla (-lae), the second pair of appendages belonging to the mouth, behind the 

mandibles or jaws. 

Maxillary palpus, a finger-like jointed appendage on each maxilla. 
Media, the fourth of the principal wing- veins. 
Mentum, the part of the labium bearing the movable parts. 
Mesepisternum, (-na), the anterior of the oblique side pieces of the mesothorax. 
Mesondtum, the back or upper side of the mesothorax. 

Mesopleura (-rse), the space below and in front of the root of the wings (Diptera). 
Mesosternum, the middle part of the underside of the mesothorax. 
Mesothdrax, the middle of the thoracic divisions, bearing the second legs and the 

fore wings. 
Metamorphosis (-ses), the series of marked external changes through which an 

insect passes during its development e. g. egg, larva, pupa, adult. 
Metasternum, the middle piece of the under side of the metathorax. 
Metatarsus (-si), the first joint of the tarsus, next to the tibia. 
Metath&rax, the third division of the thorax, bearing the hind legs and the hind 

wings. 

Micr6pterous, with small wings. 
Monfliform, resembling a string of beads. 

Neuration, the arrangement of the veins of the wings, the venation. 
Node, a swelling or knot-like knob. 

Nddus, a stout crossvein at the middle of the costal border of the wing (Odonata) . 
Notum, the dorsal surface of the body, particularly of the thorax. 
Nymph, the larval stage of those insects that have no resting pupal period. 
Ocellus (-li), the simple eyes, usually three in number, on the upper part of the 

head. 

Occiput, the back part of the head. 
Onychium (-ia), a pad between the tin-sal claws. 
6rbit, the part of the head immediately next the eyes. 
Ostioles, the paired lateral openings of the heart. 
Ovip6sitor, the egg laying apparatus. 
Palpus (-pi), one or two pairs of jointed sensitive, finger-like processes borne by the 

mouth. 
Parapsidal furrow, a lengthwise groove between the median line and each side of 

the mesonotum (Hymenoptera). 

Parasite, an animal that feeds on or in some other animal. 
Paronychium (-ia), a bristle-like appendage of the claws or em podium. 
Pectinate, with branches like a comb. 
Pendulous, hanging from one end. 
Petiolate, attached by a stalk or stem. 
Phyt6phagous, feeding on plants. 
Plantula (-lae), one of the soles of the feet. 
Pleurite, one of the side pieces of the body. 
J, feathery. 



Glossary of Special Terms. 125 

Posterior callosity, a swelling between the root of the wings and the scutellum 
(Diptera). 

Posterior cells, a variable number of cells extending to the hind margin of the wings, 
the first bounded inwardly by the anterior cross vein (Diptera). 

Posthftmeral bristle, one or more bristles placed just inside of the shoulder-swelling 
(Diptera). 

Postscutellum, a small piece of the thorax immediately behind the scutellum. 

Postvertical bristles, a pair of minute bristles behind the ocelli (Diptera) (PI. 13, 
fig. 504). 

Preapical bristle, a bristle on the outside of the tibife just before the apex (Diptera). 

Predatory, capturing living prey. 

Pygidium, the last dorsal segment. 

Prefurca, the petiole of the second and third veins of Diptera. 

Presfitural bristle, one or more bristles on each side of the mesonotum just in front 
of the transverse suture (Diptera) (PI. 13, fig. 302). 

Proboscis, the extended trunk-like or beak-like mouthparts. 

Proepimeron (-ra), that part at the rear of the side of the prothorax next the coxae. 

PronStum, the back or upper side of the prothorax. 

Propleura (-rae), the side portion of the prothorax. 

Prosternum, the middle of the underside of the prothorax. 

Prothorficic bristle, a bristle above the front coxae (Diptera). 

ProthSrax, the first division of the thorax, bearing the front legs. 

PrQinose, coated with a hoary dust. 

Pteropleural bristles, bristles located on the sides of the body just beneath the root 
of the wings (Diptera) (PL 13, fig. 303). 

Pulvfllus, (-li), a pair of pads beneath the tarsal claws. 

Pupa (-pae), the resting stage preceding the transformation to adult, sometimes 
called chrysalis. 

Radial cell, one or more, cells near the anterior margin of the wing (Hymenoptera) 
(PL 3, fig. 36). 

Radial sector, the posterior of the two main divisions of the radius. 

Radius, the third of the principal veins of the wings. 

Raptdrial, fitted for grasping prey. 

Reclinate, pointing backward. 

Recurrent nervure, one or two transverse veins arising from the lower side of the 
cubital cells (Hymenoptera) (PI. 3, fig. 36;. 

Reniform, kidney-shaped. 

Reticulate, meshed, like net-work. 

Rostrum, a beak or snout. 

Scape, the basal joint or joints of the antennae. 

Sclerite, any piece of the body wall bounded by sutures. 

Scopa, a brush on the underside of the abdomen, for collecting pollen (Hymenop- 
tera). 

Scutellum, a somewhat triangular or crescentic division at the rear of the meso- 
notum. 

Serrate, saw-toothed. 



126 Key to Families of North American Insects. 

Sessfle, broadly attached. 

Seta (-tae), a bristle or filament. 

Setaceous, bristle-like, slender. 

Sinuous, S-shaped, winding back and forth. 

Small-crossvein, a short crossvein extending from the base of the discal cell to the 
fifth posterior cell (PI. 12, fig. 258, p. c. v.). 

Spatulate, broad at tip, narrowed at base. 

Spinulated, furnished with very small spines. 

Spiracles, breathing pores along the sides of the body. 

Spurs, movable spines, usually two, at the end of the tibiee. 

Spurious vein, an extra vein crossing the anterior crossvein (Diptera) (PI. 12, fig. 
281). 

Squamopygidium, a plate formed by the fusion of several apical abdominal seg- 
ments (Dermaptera). 

Sternite, the ventral piece of each abdominal segment. 

Sternopleural bristles, the bristles on the triangular side piece between the front and 
middle coxae (Diptera) (PI. 13, fig. 303, stp.). 

Stigma, a thickening on the costal border of the wings. 

Stridulating, making a chirping or creaking noise. 

Style, a bristle-like process terminating the antennae, thicker than the arista (Dip- 
tera). 

Styles, short slender appendages on the underside of the abdomen (Thysanura). 

Stylifonn, drawn out as a slender stiff process. 

Subantennal grooves, a groove or grooves in the middle of the face (Diptera) . 

Subc6sta, the second of the principal veins of the wings. 

Submedian cell, a long cell near the base of the wing (Hymenoptera) (PL 3, figs. 
36, 37, 48, SM.). 

Submentum, the basal part of the mentum. 

Sulcate, grooved or furrowed. 

Supraanal plate, a dorsal piece terminating the abdomen. 

Suture, the line separating the pieces of the body wall. 

Tarsus (-si), the foot, the jointed portion of the leg beyond the tibia. 

Tegmen (-mina), the toughened upper wings of grasshoppers, etc. 

Tegula (-Ise), a small convex plate over the root of the fore wings (Hymenoptera) 
(PI. 4, figs. 68, 73, T.). 

Telson, the last abdominal segment. 

Tergite, the dorsal piece of an abdominal segment. 

Thdrax, the second of the main divisions of the insect body, between the head and 
the abdomen, bearing the legs and wings. 

Tibia (-i), the shin-joint of the leg, between the femur and the tarsus. 

Triangle, a small triangular cell near the base of the wing (Odonata). 

Trochanter, the small joint of the leg between the coxa and the femur. 

Trochantin, a small piece on the outer side of the coxa (Coleoptera). 

Truncate, ending squarely, blunt. 

Venation, the course of the veins or rod-like thickenings of the wings. 

Ventral, pertaining to the underside of the body. 



Glossary of Special Terms. 127 

Ventral membrane, the skin-like tissue connecting the tergites and the sternites 

(Diptera). 

Ventral segments, the sternites of the abdomen. 
Vertex, the crown of the head. 
Verticillate, provided with whorls of fine hairs. 
Vestigial, small, degenerate, not functional. 
Vibrissa (-sae), a bristle or bristles on each side of the mouth-opening in front 

(Diptera) (PL 13, fig. 304, v.). 
Viviparous, bringing forth living young, not egg-laying. 



INDEX TO GENERA AND HIGHER GROUPS. 



Acalypteratse, 67 


Amphiscepha, 74 


Aphiochseta, 65 


Acanthomeridse, 64 


Amphi/oidse, 30 


Aphorista, 37 


Acanthiidse, 77, 79 


Ampulicidse, 28 


Aphoruridse, 83 


Achetidse, 14 


Ampulicimorpha, 25 


Aphrophora, 74 


Achilidse, 75 


Ansea, 60 


Apidffi, 29 


Achorutidse, 83 


Anabolia, 47 


Apioceridae, 65 


Acilius, 31 


Anacrabro, 27 


Apocrita, 19 


Acocephalus, 74 
Acoloithus, 50 


Anajapyx, 82 
Anaphorinse, 56 


Apostraphia, 59 
Aradidse, 78 


Acordulecera, 20 


Anarsia, 58 


Archeognatha, 81 


Acridiidse, 13 


Anasa, 80 


Archips, 57 


Acroceridse, 64 


Anastatus, 22 


Archytas, 68 


Acrolepiidse, 56, 58 


Anatis, 37 


Arctiidse, 54 


Acroptera, 65 


Anax, 43 


Argynnis, 60 


Adalia, 37 


Ancylis, 57 


Argvresthia, 58 


Adelidse, 56, 57 


Andrenidse, 29 


Aricia, 68 


Adephaga, 30 


Andreniformes, 29 


Arthromacra, 38 


Adimeridse, 36, 38 


Andricus, 22 


Arthropeas, 64 


Aedes, 62 


Androloma, 53 


Arthropleona, 82 


^Egeriidse, 49 


Aneurus, 78 


Ascalaphidse, 45 


jEgialitidse, 38 


Anisolabis, 15 


Aschiza, 66 


jEolothripidse. 16 


Anisopidse, 61 


Asclera, 38 


jEschnidse, 43 


Anisoptera, 43 


Asilidse, 65 


Agabus, 31 


Anisota, 52 


Aspidiotus, 75 


Agalliophagus, 42 


Anobiidse, 34 


Aspistes, 63 


Agaonidse, 22 


Anopheles, 62 


Astata, 28 


Agapetidse, 60 


Anoplura, 18 


Asteidse, 71 


Agapostemon, 29 


Anosia, 59 


Athericera, 66 


Agaristidse, 53 


Anotia, 75 


Atomaria, 34 


Agdistinse, 49 


Anteon, 25 


Atropidse, 17 


Ageniaspis, 22 


Anthericomma, 42 


Attagenus, 34 


Agnatha, 43 


Anthicidse, 39 


Attelabidee.41 


Agnepteryx, 59 


Anthidium, 30 


Atteva, 58 


Agrilus, 33 


Anthocoridse, 78 


Auchenorrhyncha, 73 


Agrionidse, 43 


Anthomyiidse, 68 


Augochlora, 29 


Agromyzidse, 71 


Anthomyza, 71 


Automeris, 52 


Agrotis, 54 


Anthonomus, 41 


Auzatidse, 53 


Alabama, 54 


Anthophila, 2 




Alaus, 33 


Aathophoridse, 29 


Bacillus, 14 


Aletia, 54 


Anthrax, 65 


Bactridium, 38 


Aleyrodidse, 76 


Anthrenus, 34 


Bactrocerus, 19 


Alleculidse, 38 


Anthribidse, 41 


Bseocera, 35 


Allotria, 21 


Antispila, 57 


Bsetis, 43 


Alophora, 67 


Antiliata, 61 


Balaninus, 41 


Alsophila, 52 


Anurididse, 83 


Basilarchia, 60 


Alydidse, 80 


Apantesis, 54 


Basilona, 52 


Alypia, 53 


Apatela, 54 


Batrisodes, 32 


Alysiidse, 21, 22 


Apatelodes, 52 


Bedellia, 56 


Alysonidse, 29 


Apatidse, 34 


Belostomatidse, 77 


Amblycera, 18 


Aphsenocephalidse, 38 


Belytidffi, 24 


Ambrysus, 77 


Aphsereta, 21 


Bembecia, 49 


Ammophila, 28 


Aphaniptera, 72 


Bembecidse, 28 


Amphicerus, 34 


Aphelinus, 24 


Bembidium, 31 


Amphicyrta, 32 


Aphididse, 76 


Berothidae, 46 



128 



Index to Genera and Higher Groups. 



129 



Bervtidae, 80 


Callimomidae, 23 


Chalarus, 66 


Bethylida?, 25, 27 


Callimyia, 66 


Chalastogastra, 19 


Bibiocephala, 62 


Calliphoridae, 68 


Chalcididae, 23 


Bibionidae, 62 


Callizzia, 51 


Chalcidoidea, 22 


Bittacomorpha, 62 


Callosamia, 52 


Chalcophora, 33 


Bittacusidae, 46 


Calobatidse, 69 


Chalcosiida?, 50 


Blapstinus, 38 


Calopteron, 36 


Chalepus, 40 


Blastobasidae, 58 


Calopterygidae, 43 


Chalia, 50 


Blastophaga, 22 


Calosoma, 31 


Chalybion, 28 


Blattaeformia, 1 


Caloteleia, 24 


Chauliodes, 44 


Blattella, 16 


Calotermes, 17 


Chauliognathus, 36 


Blattidae, 16 


Calypteratae, 67 


Cheiropachys, 23 


Blepharoceridae, 62 


Calypteromerus, 36 


Chelonariidae, 32 


Blissus, 80 


Campodeidse, 82 


Chelonus, 21 


Bocchus, 25 


Camponotus, 25 


Chermidae, 75 


Bombidae, 29 


Camptoprosopella, 69 


Chionaspis, 75 


Bombomelecta, 29 


Campylomvza, 63 


Chironomidae, 63 


Bombycidae, 53 


Canifa, 39 


Chlaenius. 31 


Bombycqidea, 3 


Cantharidse, 40 


Chlorion, 28 


Bombyliidse, 65 


Canthon, 41 


Chlorochroa, 74 


Borboridee, 70 


Capitoniidaa, 21 


Chloroperla, 44 


Boreidae, 46 


Capsidse, 78 


Chloropidae, 71 


Boriomyja, 45 


Carabidae, 31 


Choreutis, 58 


Boros, 39 


Cardiacephala, 70 


Chortophaga, 13 


Bostrichidse, 34 


Carpocapsa, 57 


Chrysididae, 25 


Botanobia, 71 


Carpophilus, 33 


Chrj-sobothrLs, 33 


Brachiloma, 58 


Carposina, 58 


Chrysomelidae, 40 


Brachinus, 31 


Cartodere, 38 


Chrysophanus, 60 


Brachycentrus, 47 


Castniidae, 49 


Chrysopidae, 45 


Brachycera, 61 


Catocala, 54 


Chrysopila, 64 


Brachymera, 2 


Cebrionidse, 35 


Chrysops, 64 


Brachynemurus, 45 


Cecidomyiidse, 63 


Chrysotus, 66 


Brachyrhinidae, 41 


Celama, 54 


Chyliza, 72 


Brachystegus, 29 


Cemonus, 28 


Chyphotes, 26 


Brachy tarsus, 41 


Centris, 29 


Cicadidse, 73 


Braconidse, 21, 22 


Cephaloonidae, 39 


Cicindelidae, 31 


Brassolidae, 60 


Cephidaa, 20 


Cicinnus, 53 


Brenthidae, 41 


Cerambycidae, 40 


Cimbicidae, 20 


Brenthis, 60 


Ceraphronidae, 24 


Cimicidae, 77 


Brochymena, 80 


Ceratocampidse, 52 


Cioidae, 37 


Brontes, 34 


Ceratocombidaa, 77 


Cissia, 60 


Bruchidse, 40 


Ceratinidae, 30 


Cistelidae, 38 


Bruchomorpha, 75 


Ceratitis, 70 


Cistogaster, 67 


Bryaxis, 32 


Ceratophyllus, 73 


Citheroniidae, 52 


Bucculatrix, 55 


Ceratopogon, 63 


Gixiidae, 75 


Buprestidse, 33 
Byrrhidae, 32 


Ceratopsyllidae, 73 
Cerceris, 28 


Clambidae, 36 
Clastoptera, 74 


Byrsopidae, 41 


Cercyon, 32 


Clavicornia, 32 


Bythoscopidae, 74 


Cercopidse, 74 


Cleonymidae, 23 


Byturidae, 34 


Cercyonis, 60 


Cleridas, 35 




Ceresa, 74 


Climacia, 46 


Caecilius, 17 


Cerodonta, 71 


Clinocera, 66 


Clamocerotidse, 47 


Ceropalidae, 26 


Clinocoridag, 77 


Calandridse, 41 


Ceroplatus, 63 


Clisiocampa, 53 


Calephelis, 60 


Ceruchus, 41 


Clistogastra, 19 


Caligo, 60 


Cerylon, 37 


Clusia, 69 


Calledapteryx, 51 


Ceuthophilus, 14 


Clythiidae, 66 


Calligraphy 40 


Chaetopsis, 70 


Coccidae, 75 



130 



Key to Families of Xorth American Insects. 



Coccinellidse, 37 


Cryptus, 21 


Diadasia, 29 


Cochlidiidse, 50 


Ctenocephalus, 73 


Diamorus, 23 


Coelioxys, 30 


Ctenophora, 62 


Diaperis, 38 


Coelopa, 69 


Ctenopsyllidse, 73 


Diaphania, 50 


Coenagrionidse, 43 


Ctenucha, 53 


Diapheromera, 14 


Coenonympha, 60 


Cucujidse, 34, 39 


Diapriidae, 24 


Coenosia, 68 


Culicidse, 62 


Diastata, 71 


Coleophora, 57 


Cupedidae, 30 


Dicellura, 82 


Coleoptera, 30 


Curculionidse, 41 


Dictyoptera, 45 


Coleopteroidea, 2 


Cursoria, 16 


Didineis, 29 


Colias, 60 


Cuterebridse, 67 


Diedrocephala, 74 


Collembola, 82 


Cyane, 57 


Dilaridae, 45 


Colletidae, 29 


Cy bister, 31 


Dilophus, 62 


Colletiformes, 29 


Cybocephalus, 36 


Dineutes, 31 


Collops, 36 
Colobopterus, 45 


Cycloplasis, 57 
Cydia, 57 


Dioptidse, 52 
Diphyllini, 34 


Colydiidse, 37 


Cydnidse, 80 


Diplax, 43 


Colymbetes, 31 


Cyclorrhapha, 65 


Diploglossata, 14 


Coniopterygidse, 45 


Cylas, 41 


Diploplectron, 2S 


Connophron, 36 
Conocephalus, 14 


Cylindrotomidse, 62 
Cyllene, 40 


Diopsidse, 70 
Diplosis, 63 


Conopidse, 66 


Cymatophoridse, 52 


Diplura, 81 


Conorhinus, 79 


Cynipidse, 22 


Diprionidse, 20 


Conotrachelus, 41 


Cynipoidea, 22 


Dipsocoridae, 77 


Contarinia, 63 


Cyphonidse, 33 


Diptera, 61 


Copeognatha, 17 


Cypselidse, 70 


Dircenna, 59 


Copidita, 38 


Cyrtidse, 64 


Discolomidae, 38 


Copromyzidse, 70 


Cyrtonotum, 71 


Dissosteira, 13 


Coptodisca, 57 


Cyrtopogon, 65 


Ditoma, 37 


Coptotriche, 56 




Diversicornia, 32 


Cordulegasteridse, 43 


Dacnes, 34 


Dixidse, 62 


Corduliidse, 43 


Dacnusa, 21 


Docophorus, 18 


Cordyluridse, 69 


Dactylopius, 75 


Dolerus, 20 


Coreida?, 80 


Dalceridse, 50 


Dolichopodidse, 66. 


Corimelsenidse, 80 


Danais, 59 


Donacia, 40 


Corixidse, 77 


Dascyllidse, 33 


Dorcus, 41 


Corizidee, 80 


Dasyneura, 63 


Dorniphora, 65 


Corphyra, 39 


Datana, 52 


Doryceridae, 70 


Corrodentia, 17 


Debis, 60 


Dorylaidae, 66 


Corticaria, 38 


Decatoma, 23 


Doryphora, 40 


Corydalidse, 44 


Degeeriidse, 83 


Doru, 15 


Corylophidse, 36 


Deilephila, 51 


Drapetes, 33 


Corynetidse, 35 


Delphacidse, 74 


Drasterius, 33 


Corythuca, 79 


Deltocephalus, 74 


Drepanidse, 53 


Cosilidse, 27 
Cosmopepla, 80 


Dendroctonus, 40 
Dendroides, 39 


Drosophilida?, 71 
Dryinidae, 25, 27 


Cosmopterygidse, 57, 58 


Dendroleon, 45 


Dryomyzidae, 70 


Cossidse, 50, 55 


Depressaria, 59 


Dryope, 58 


Crabronidse, 27 


Derbidae, 75 


Dryopidae, 32 


Crambidse, 50 


Dermaptera, 15 


Dysdercus, 79 


Crambidia, 55 


Dermatina, 4 


Dysodia, 53 


Cratoparis, 41 


Dermatophilidse, 72 


Dysodiidse, 78 


Cremastogaster, 25 


Dermestidae, 34 




Criocerus, 40 


Dermodermaptera, 14 


Eccoptogaster, 40 


Cryptocephalus, 40 


Derodontidae, 34 


Echinophthiriidse, IS 


Cryptophagidse, 34, 39 


Desmometopa, 71 


Ectredemia, 55 


Cryptorhynchus, 41 


Dexiidaj, 68 


Eiseniella, 22 


Cryptothrips, 16 


Diacrisia, 54 


Elachistidae, 57 



Index to Genera and Higher Groups. 



131 



Elaphidion, 40 


Euchistus, 80 


Geometridae, 51, 52, 55 


Elasmidae, 23 


Eucinetidse, 33 


Geomyzidse, 71 


Elateridse, 33 


Eucleidse, 50 


Georyssidse, 37 


Elenchidae, 42 


Eucnemidae, 33 


Geotrupes, 41 


Eleodes, 38 


Eucoila, 21 


Geron, 65 


Eleuterata, 30 


Euconnus, 36 


Gerridse, 78 


Elis, 26 


Eucosma, 57 


Gingla, 50 


Ellipoptera, 18 


Eudamus, 59 


Glossata, 48 


Ellychnia, 36 


Eudermaptera, 15 


Glyptocombus, 77 


Elmis, 32 


Eulecanium, 75 


Gnophsela, 54 


Elythroptera, 30 


Eulophidse, 24 


Gnorimoschema, 56 


Embidaria, 3 


Eumenidse, 26 


Gomphidae, 43 


Embiidse, 43 


Eumyiidse, 66 


Gonatocerus, 22 


Embioptera, 42 


Eunotus, 23 


Gonatopus, 25 


Embolemidae, 25 


Euparagia, 26 


Gonia, 68 


Emesidae, 79 


Eupelmidae, 22 


Gorytidae, 29 


Emmenognatha, 44 
Empididse, 66 


Euplexoptera, 15 
Euploeidse, 59 


Gracilariidae, 57 
Graphomyia, 68 


Empoasca, 74 


Euproctis, 55 


Grapta, 60 


Enallagma, 43 


Eupsalis, 41 


Gressoria, 14 


Enarmonia, 57 


Eupterotidae, 52, 53 


Gryllidse, 14 


Enchenopa, 74 


Eurema, 60 


Grylloblattidse, 13 


Encyrtidae, 22 


Euribiidse, 70 


Gryllotalpidse, 14 


Endomychidae, 37 


Eurygaster, 80 


Gymnopternus, 66 


Energopoda, 4 


Eurymus, 60 


Gymnosomatidae, 67 


Ennearthron, 37 


Eurytomidae, 23 


Gypona, 74 


Enodia, 60 


Eusapyga, 26 


Gyrinidae, 31 


Entomobryidse, 83 


Eustrophus, 39 


Gyropodidae, 18 


Eois, 52 


Eutermes, 17 




Eosentomidae, 83 


Euthrips, 16 


Habrosyne, 52 


Ephemeridse, 43 


Euthyatira, 52 


Hadena, 54 


Ephemeroidea, 3 


Euthysanius, 35 


Haematobia, 68 


Ephemeroptera, 43 


Euvanessa, 60 


Haematopinidae, 19 


Ephestia, 50 


Euxesta, 70 


Halictophagidse, 42 


Ephuta, 27 


Evaniidae, 21 


Halictus, 29 


Ephydridae, 71 


Evaniocerini, 39 


Hallplidae, 31 


Epicallima, 59 


Exoprosopa, 65 


Halisidota, 54 


Epicauta, 40 


Exoristidae, 68 


Halterata, 61 


Epilachna, 37 




Halteriptera, 61 


Epitnartyria, 49 
Epiplemidse, 51 
Epitrix, 40 


Fannia, 68 
Figitidse, 21 
Flatidse 74 


Haltica, 40 
Halticus, 78 
Haploa, 54 


Epochra, 70 




Harmostes, 80 


Eproboscidea, 66 
Epyris, 25 
Erax, 65 


Foenus, 21 
Forficulidse, 15 
Formicidse, 25 

"EVvi. ov GO 


Harpalus, 31 
Harrisina, 50 
Haustellata, 61 


Eretmoptera, 63 
Erinnidse, 64 
Eriocephalidse, 49 
Erioptera, 62 


x 1 ornax, oo 
Frenataa, 49 
Fulgoridse, 74 
Fungivoridae, 63 


Hebridae, 79 
Hedychrum, 25 
Heliconiidae, 59 
Helicoptera, 75 


Eristalis, 66 




Heliodinidse, 57 


Eros, 36 


Galerucella, 40 


Heliophila, 54 


Erotylidse, 34, 37 


Galgulidze, 76 


Heliothis, 54 


Erycinidae, 60 


Galleriida?, 50 


Heliothrips, 16 


Estigmene, 54 


Gastrophilidae. 67 


Heliozelidaa, 55, 57 


Ethmiidas, 59 


Gelastocoris, 76 


Helodidae, 33 


Eucerceris, 28 


Gelechiida?, 56, 58 


Helomyzidae, 68 


Eucharidae, 23 


Geocoris, 80 


Helophilus, 66 



132 



Key to Families of North American Insects. 



Heloridae,24 


Hypocera, 65 


Lathridiidse, 38 


Hemerobiidae, 45 


Hypodermatidse, 67 


Lauxaniida?, 69 


Hemerocampa, 55 


Hypoprepia, 55 


Lemoniidae, 60 


Hemerodromia, 66 


Hyporhagus, 39 


Lepidoptera, 48 


Hemimeridae, 14 
Hemiptera, 76 


Hvpselosoma, 77 
Hypsidae, 54 


Lepidosaphes, 75 
Lepismatidae, 81 


Hemisia, 29 


Hystrichopsyllidae, 73 


Leptidae, 64 


Henicocephalidae, 79 




Leptinida?, 35 


Henopidae, 64 


Ibaliidae, 22 


Leptinotarsa, 40 


Hepialidse, 49 


Ichneumonidae, 21, 22 


Leptocera, 70 


Heptagenia, 43 


Ichneumoniformia, 1 


Leptoceridae, 48 


Heriades, 30 


Idiocerus, 74 


Leptocoris, 80 


Hesperiidae, 59 


Incurvaria, 57 


Leptogaster, 65 


Hesperoctenes, 78 


Inocellia, 44 


Leptoglossus, 80 


Hetaerina, 43 


Iphiclides, 60 


Leptomvdas, 65 


Heterocampa, 52 


Ipidae, 40 


Leria, 68 


Heterocera, 48 


Ischnocera, 18 


Lestes, 43 


Heteroceridae, 37 


Ischnoptera, 16 


Lestremia, 63 


Heterochila, 70 


Isocybus, 24 


Lethocerus, 77 


Heteromera, 31 


Isodontia, 28 


Leucopis, 72 


Heteroneuridae, 69 


Isometopidae, 78 


Leucospidae, 23 


Heteroplectron, 47 


Isoptera, 17 


Libellulida3, 43 


Heteroptera, 76 


Isosoma, 23 


Libelluloidea, 3 


Hexagenia, 43 


Isotoma, 83 


Liburnia, 74 


Hippelates, 71 


Issidse, 75 


Libytheidse, 60 


Hippiscus, 13 


Ithomiidae, 59 


Limenitis,- 60 


Hippbboscidse, 72 


Itonididae, 63 


Limnephilidae, 47 


Hippodamia, 37 




Limnerium, 21 


Hirmoneura, 64 


Jalysus, 80 


Limnobatidae, 78 


Histeridae, 33 


Janus, 20 


Limnobiidae, 62 


Histriciidae, 68 


Japygidae, 82 


Limnophila, 62 


Holcaspis, 22 


Jassidae, 74 


Limnotrechus, 78 


Holcocera, 58 


Jugatae, 49 


Liraonius, 33 


Hololepta, 33 




Limosina, 70 


Holometopa, 67 


Kapala, 23 


Liotheidae, 18 


Homaemus, 80 


Kermes, 75 


Liparidae, 55 


Homalomyia, 68 




Lipeurus, 18 


Homoptera, 73 


Labiduridae, 15 


Liponeuridse, 62 


Hoplisodes, 29 


Labiidae, 15 


Lipoptera, 18 


Hybos, 66 


Laccobius, 32 


Liriopeidae, 62 


Hydrellia, 71 


Lachnosterna, 41 


Litargus, 37 


Hydriomena, 52 


Lacosomatidae, 53 


Lithocolletes, 57 


Hydrobatidae, 78 


Laemophlceus, 34 


Lithosiidae, 51, 55 


Hydrobius, 32 


Lsemopsylla, 73 


Locustidae, 14 


Hydrometridae, 78 


Laertias, 60 


Lomamyia, 46 


Hydrophilidse, 32 


Lagoa, 50 


Lonchasidae, 70 


Hydrophorus, 66 
Hydropsychidae, 47 


Lagriidae, 38 
Lamellicornia, 31 


Lonchopteridae, 65 
Lonomiidae, 53 


Hydroptilidae, 47 


Lampyridae, 36 


Lophyrus, 20 


Hydroscaphidae, 37 


Languridae, 37 


Loxocera, 72 


Hvlocoetus, 36 


Laphria, 65 


Loxostege, 50 


Hylophilida?, 39 


Laphygma, 54 


Lucanidae, 41 


Hylotomidse, 20 


LariidaB, 40 


Lucidota, 36 


Hymenoptera, 19 


LarridzE, 28 


Lucilia, 68 


Hymenopteroidea, 1 


Larvsevoridse, 68 


Lycsenidse, 60 


Hymenorus, 38 


Lasiocampidae, 53 


Lydidae, 19 


Hypatus, 60 


Lasioptera, 63 


Lycida?, 36 


Hyphantria, 54 


Lasius, 25 


Lycogaster, 24 



Index to Genera and Higher Groups. 



133 



Lycoperdina, 37 


Melittobia, 24 


My corny ia, 63 


Lycoriidae, 63 


Mellinidze, 28 


Mydaidae, 65 


Lyctidse, 34 


Meloidae, 40 


Myersiidae, 21, 22 


Lygaeidae, 80 


Melophagus, 72 


Myiodaria, 66 


Lygus, 78 


Melusinidae, 62 


Myiospila, 68 


Lymantriidse, 55 


Melyridse, 36 


Mymaridae, 22 


Lymexylonidse, 35, 36 


Membracidae, 74 


Myodites, 39 


Lymnadidae, 59 


Mengeidae, 42 


Myodochidse, 80 


Lyonetiidae, 55 


Menopon, 18 


Myolabridae, 40 


Lyperosia, 68 


Meoneura, 71 


Myopa, 66 


Lyroda, 28 


Meromyza, 71 


Myrmecophila, 14 


Lysiphlebus, 21 
Lyttidae, 40 


Meropidae, 46 
Mesoveliidae, 79 


Myrmeleonidae, 45 
Myrmica, 25 




Metatermitidse, 17 


Myrmosidae, 26, 27 


Machilidae, 81 


Meteorus, 21 


Mytilaspis, 75 


Macratria, 39 


Methoca, 27 


Myzinidae, 26 


Macrobasis, 40 


Metopia, 68 


Myzus, 76 


Macrocephalidae, 79 


Mezira, 78 




Macrocera, 63 


Mezium, 35 


Nabidae, 78 


Macrodactylia, 2 


Microbembex, 28 


Nacerdes, 38 


Macrodactylus, 41 


Microgaster, 21 


Naeogeidae, 79 


Macronema, 47 


Micromalthidae, 36 


Naso, 75 


Macrophya, 20 


Micromus, 45 


Naucoridae, 77 


Macrosiphum, 76 


Micropezidae, 69, 70 


Neanura, 83 


Macroxyela, 19 


Microphthalma, 67 


Necrobia, 35 


Malachiidae, 35, 36 


Micropterygoidea, 49 


Necrophorus, 36 


Malacodermata, 2 


Microphona, 65 


Nectarophora, 76 


Malacodermidae, 36 


Microrhagus, 33 


Neelidae, 83 


Malacomyza, 45 


Microvelia, 78 


Neididae, 80 


Malacosoma, 53 


Milichiidae, 71 


Nematocera, 61 


Mallophaga, 18 


Mimesidae, 28 


Nematus, 20 


Mantidae, 16 


Mineola, 50 


Nemistrinidae, 64 


Mantispidae, 45 


Miridae, 78 


Nemognatha, 40 


Margaronia, 50 


Mirientomata, 83 


Nemopoda, 68 


Masaridse, 26 


Miscogastridae, 23 


Nemotelus, 63 


Masiceridae, 68 


Miscophus, 28 


Nemoura, 44 


Mayetiola, 63 


Molamba, 36 


Nepidse, 77 


Mecoptera, 46 


Molannidae, 48 


Neopasites, 29 


Mecynocera, 42 


Mompha, 57 


Neoscleroderma, 25 


Megachilidse, 30 


Monarthrum, 40 


Nephanes, 37 


Magalodachne, 34 


Monedula, 28 


Nepticulidae, 55 


Megaloptera, 44 


Monodontomerus, 23 


Nerophilus, 48 


Magalopygidse, 50 


Monohammus, 40 


Nerthridae, 76 


Megalothoracidae, 83 


Monommidae, 39 


Neuronia, 47 


Megaprosopidae, 67 


Mononychidae, 76 


Neuroptera, 45 


Megaspilus, 24 


Monotomidae, 38 


Neuropteroidea, 3 


Megathymus, 59 


Mordellidae, 39 


Neuroctena, 70 


Megilla, 37 


Morellia, 68 


Neuroterus, 22 


Melandryidae, 39 


Morphoidae, 60 


Neurotoma, 19 


Melanolestes, 79 


Murgantia, 80 


Nirmus, 18 


Melanophora, 68 


Muscidas, 68 


Nisoniades, 59 


Melanophthalraa, 38 


Musidoridae, 65 


Nitelidae, 28 


Melanoplus, 13 


Mutillidae, 27 


Nitidulidae, 33, 38 


Melanotus, 33 


Mycetseidse, 37 


Noctuidae, 54 


Melectidse, 29 


Mycetaulus, 71 


Nolidae, 54 


Meleoma, 45 


Mycetochares, 38 


Nomadidae, 29 


Melissodes, 29 


Mycetophagidae, 34, 37 


Nosodendridae, 32 


Melittia, 49 


Mycetophilidae, 63 


Nossidium, 37 



134 



Key to Families of North American Insects. 



Notiphila, 71 


Ortalididas, 70 


Peltis, 33 


Notodontidae, 52 


Orthezia, 75 


Pemphredonidae, 28 


Notoglossa, 27 


Orthocladius, 63 


Pentagrammaphila, 42 


Notolophus, 55 


Orthogenya, 65 


Pentarthron, 24 


Notonectidae, 77 


Orthoperidae, 36 


Pentatomidae, 80 


Notoxus, 39 


Orthoptera, 13 


Penthe, 39 


Nycteolidae, 54 
Nycteribiidae, 72 


Orthopteroidea, 1 
Oryssidae, 20 


Pepsis, 26 
Peribalus, 80 


Nyctobates, 38 


Oscinidse, 71 


Pericoma, 62 


Nymphalidae, 60 


Osmia, 30 


Pericopidae, 54 


Nymphipara, 66 


Ostomatidae, 33 


Peridroma, 54 


Nyssonidae, 28, 29 


Othniidae, 38 


Perilampidae, 23 




Otiocerus, 75 


Periplaneta, 16 


Ochteridse, 76 


Otiorhynchidae, 41 


Perlidse, 44 


Ochthiphilidze, 72 


Oxybelidae, 27 


Perloidea, 3 


Ocneria, 55 


Oxyptilus, 49 


Petrophora, 52 


Ocypteridae, 68 




Phalacridae, 33 


Odinia, 71 


Pachybrachys, 40 


Phalonia, 58 


Odonata, 43 


Pachyneuridae, 62 


Phasgonophora, 23 


Odontoceridae, 48 


Pachyophthalmus, 68 


Phasgonuridae, 14 


Odontophyes, 19 


Pachyrhina, 62 


Phasmidae, 14 


Odontota, 40 


Packardia, 50 


Phasiidae, 67 


Odynerus, 26 


Pagasa, 78 


Phengodes, 36 


(Ecanthus, 14 


Paleacrita, 52 


Philanthidae, 28 


(Ecophoridae, 59 


Palloptera, 70 


Philonthus, 32 


(Edemasia, 52 


Palpicornia, 32 


Philopotamidae, 47 


(Edomeridae, 38 


Pamphila, 59 


Philopteridae, 18 


(Estridae, 67 


Pamphiliidae, 19 


Philothermus, 37 


Olbiogaster, 61 


Pangseus, 80 


Phleboptera, 19 


Olene, 55 


Panorpidae, 46 


Phlegethontius, 51 


Olethreutes, 57 


Panorpoidea, 3 


Phloeothripidae. 16 


Olfersia, 72 


Pantoclis, 24 


Pholus, 51 


Olibrus, 33 


Pantophthalmidae, 64 


Phorantha, 67 


Oligoneura, 42 


Panurgidae, 29 


Phorbia, 68 


Oligotomidae, 43 


Papaipema, 54 


Phoridae, 65 


Olynthidae, 42 


Papilionidae, 60 


Phorodon, 76 


Omaloptera, 66 


Papiriidae, 83 


Phortica, 71 


Omophron, 31 


Paragus, 66 


Photinus, 36 


Omosita, 33 


Paralleldmma, 69 


Photuris, 36 


Omus, 31 


Paramesius, 24 


Phryganeidae, 47 


Oncodida?, 64 


Parandra, 40 


Phryganidia, 52 


Oncomyia, 66 


Paraneuroptera, 43 


Phryneidae, 61 


Oncopeltis, 80 


Parasita, 18 


Phthiraptera, 18 


Onthophagus, 41 


Paratiphia, 26 


Phthirius, 19 


Oothecaria, 16 


Parnassiidae, 60 


Phthorimaea, 56 


Ophion, 21 


Parnidffi, 32 


Phyciodes, 60 


Opomyzidse, 71 


Parnopes, 25 


Phycitidae, 50 


Opostegidae, 55 


Parydra, 71 


Phycodromidae, 69 


Opsebius, 64 


Passaloecus, 28 


Phyllobaenus, 35 


Orasema, 23 


Passalidae, 41 


Phyllocnistis, 55, 57 


Orchesella, 83 


Paururus, 20 


Phyllodromia, 16 


Oreta, 53 


Pediculidae, 19 


Phylloxera, 76 


Orgyia, 55 


Pedilidse, 39 


Phymatidae, 79 


Ormenis, 74 


Pelecinidae, 25 


Physocephala, 66 


Ormyrus, 23 


Pelidnota, 41 


Physopoda, 15 


Orneodidae, 49 


Pelocoris, 77 


Phyto, 68 


Ornix, 57 


Pelogonidae, 76 


Phytomyzidse, 71 


Orphnephilidse, 62 


Pelopaeus, 28 


Phytonomus, 41 



Index to Genera and Higher Groups. 



135 



Phytophaga (Hym.) 19 


Proleucoptera, 55 


Rhabdura, 82 


Phytophaga (Col. ) 31 


Pronuba, 55 


Rhachiceridae, 64 


Pieridae, 60 


Prosopidae, 29 


Rhagionidae, 64 


Piesmidae, 80 


Protermitidae, 17 


Rhagoletis, 70 


Pimpla, 21 


Protura, 83 


Rhagovelia, 78 


Piophilidae, 71 


Psammocharidae, 26 


Rhamphomyia, 66 


Pipunculidae, 66 


Pselaphidae, 32 


Rhanis, 37 


Pissodes, 41 


Psenidae, 28 


Rhaphidiidae, 44 


Plastocerus, 35 


Psephenus, 32 


Rhaphiomydas, 65 


Platycerus, 41 


Pseudagenia, 26 


Rheumaptera, 52 


Platydema, 38 


Pseudisobrachium, 25 


Rhinchitidae, 41 


Platygastridae, 24 


Pseudocoecus, 75 


Rhinomaceridae, 41 


Platynus, 31 
Platypalpus, 66 


Pseudocorylophidae, 38 
Pseudomasaris, 26 


Rhinophoridae, 68 
Rhinopsis, 28 


Platypedia, 73 


Pseudomethoca, 27 


Rhinotoridae, 70 


Platypezidae, 66 


Pseudorhynchota, 18 


Rhipiceridae, 34 


Platypodidae, 40 


Pseuoplisus, 29 


Rhipiphoridae, 39 


Platypterygidae, 53 


Psilidae, 72 


Rhipiptera, 41 


Platypsyllidae, 35 


Psilocephala, 65 


Rhizophagus, 38 


Platyptilia, 49 


Psithyrus, 29 


Rhogas, 21 


Platystomatidae, 70 
Plecia, 62 


Psocidae, 17 
Psocinella, 17 


Rhopalocera, 48 
Rhopalomeridae, 69, 70 


Plecoptera, 44 


Psocoptera, 17 


Rhopalosomatidae, 26 


Plecotoma, 39 


Psyche, 48 


Rhophoteira, 72 


Plectoptera, 43 


Psychidae, 50, 55 


Rhyacophilidae, 47 


Plenoculus, 28 


Psychodidae, 62 


Rhymbus, 37 


Plodia, 50 


Psychomyiidae, 47 


Rhynchocephalus, 64 


Podabrus, 36 


Psyllidae, 75 


Rhynchophora, 31 


Podagrion, 23 


Pteromalidae, 23 


Rhynchoprionidae, 72 


Poduridae, 83 


Pteronarcys, 44 


Rhynchota, 4 


Poecilocapsus, 78 


Pterophoridae, 49 


Rhyphidae, 61 


Poiocera, 74 


Pterostichus, 31 


Rhysodidae, 31 


Polistes, 26 


Pterygogenea, 1 


Riodinidae, 60 


Polycaon, 34 


Pterygophoridae, 20 


Rivellia, 70 


Polycentropidae, 47 


Ptilidae, 37 


Roproniidae, 21 


Polyctenidae, 78 


Ptilodexia, 68 


Ruralidae, 60 


Polygnotus, 24 


Ptinidae, 35 




Polygonia, 60 


Ptinobius, 23 


Saldidae, 79 


Polymorpha, 32 


Ptomophagus, 36 


Saltatoria, 13 


Polynema, 22 


Ptychopteridae, 62 


Samia, 52 


Polyphaga, 30 


Pygidicranidae", 15 


Sandalus, 34 


Polystigma, 60 


Pyragra, 15 


Sanninoidea, 49 


Polystoechotidae, 45 


Pyragropsis, 15 


Saperda, 40 


Pomphopoea, 40 


Pyralididae, 50, 51 


Saprinus, 33 


Pompilidae, 26 


Pyrameis, 60 


Sapromyzidae, 69 


Ponera, 25 


Pyraustidae, 50 


Sapygidae, 26 


Pontia, 60 


Pyrgotidae, 70 


Sarcophagidae, 68 


Porthetria, 55 


Pyrochroidae, 39 


Sarcopsyllidae, 72 


Priononyx, 28 
Prionoxystus, 50 


Pyromorphidae, 50 
Pyrrhocoridae, 79 


Sargus, 63 
Saturniidae, 52 


Pristaulacus, 21 


Pythidae, 39 


Satyrus, 60 


Prochiliza, 71 


Pyticera, 35 


Scaphidiidae, 35 


Proconiidae, 74 


Pulicidae, 73 


Scaphisoma, 35 


Proctacanthus, 65 


Pulvinaria, 75 


Scaptolenus, 35 


Proctotrypidae, 25 


Pupipara, 66 


Scarabaeidae, 41 


Prodenia, 54 




Scatomyzidae, 69 


Prodoxidae, 55 


Ranatra, 77 


Scatophagidae, 69 


Projapygidae, 82 


Reduviidae, 79 


Scatopsidse, 63 


Prolabia, 15 


Reduviolus, 78 


Scelionida:, 24 



136 



Key to Families of North American Insects. 



Sceliphron, 28 


Sphyrocephala, 70 


Tenaga, 56 


Scepsis, 53 
Schizometopa, 67 


Spermophagus, 40 
Sphilochalcis, 23 


Tendipedida, 63 
Tenebrioides, 33 


Schizophora, 66 


Spilonota, 57 


Tenebrionidae, 38 


Schizopterida?, 77 


Spilosoma, 54 


Tenthredella, 20 


SchSzura, 52 


Spondylidae, 40 


Tenthredinidae, 20 


Sciagraphia, 52 


Stachyocnemus, 80 


Tephritis, 70 


Sciapus, 66 


Stagmomantis, 16 


Tephrochlamys, 68 


Sciaridae, 63 


Staphylinidae, 32 


Tephroclystis, 52 


Sciomyzidae, 70 


Staphyliniformia, 2 


Terebrantia (Hym.), 19 


Sciophila, 63 


Statira, 38 


Terebrantia (Thrips) , 1 6- 


Schistoceros, 34 


Stegomyia, 62 


Teredilia, 2 


Scoliidae, 26 


Stelis, 30 


Terias, 60 


Scolops, 75 


Stenomidae, 58 


Termitidse, 17 


Scolytidae, 40 


Stenoxenidse, 63 


Termopsis, 17 


Scopeumidae, 69 


Stenus, 32 


Tetanoceridse, 70 


Scraptiidse, 39 


Stephanidae, 21 


Tetracha, 31 


Scudderia, 14 
Scutelleridae, 80 


Sterictophora, 20 
Sternoxia, 2 


Tetraopes, 40 
Tetrastichus, 24 


Scydmaenidse, 36 


Sthenopis, 49 


Tettigidae, 13 


Semiotellus, 23 


Stigmus, 28 


Tettigonidse, 14 


Sepedon, 70 


Stizidse, 28 


Tettigoniidae, 74 


Sepsis, 68 


Stobsera, 74 


Thamnotettix, 74 


Sericostomatidse, 47 


Stomoxys, 68 


Thanasimus, 35 


Serphidse, 25 


Stratiomyiidae, 63 


Thaumatotypidea, 21 


Serricornia, 32 


Streblidse, 72 


Thecla, 60 


Sesiidae, 49 


Strepsiptera, 41 


Thelaira, 68 


Sessiliventres, 19 


Stylogaster, 69 


Theresia, 68 


Setomorpha, 58 


Stylops, 42 


Therevidse, 65 


Sialididae, 44 


Suctoria, 72 


Thripidae, 16 


Sierolomorpha, 27 


Symphasis, 45 


Throscidae, 33 


Silphidae, 36 
Silvanus, 34 


Sympherobius, 45 
Symphypleona, 83 


Thyacophilidae, 47 
Thyatiridse, 52 


Silvius, 64 


Symphoromyia, 64 


Thynnidse, 27 


Simuliidae, 62 


Symphyta, 19 


Thyreocoridae, 80 


Sinodendridae, 41 


Sympiesls, 24 


Thyrididae, 53 


Sinoxylon, 34 


Synchora, 39 


Thyridopteryx, 50 


Siphonaptera, 72 


Synergus, 22 


Thysanoptera, 15 


Siphunculata, 18 


Synistata, 45 


Thysanura, 80 


Siricidse, 20 


Synteliidse, 33 


Tibicen, 73 


Sisyridae, 46 


Syntomidse, 53 


Tineidae, 56, 58 


Sitodrepa, 34 


Syrphidae, 66 


Tineola, 58 


Sitotroga, 56 


Systropus, 65 


Tingitidse, 79 


Smicra, 23 




Tiphiidae, 26 


Smicrips, 38 


Tabanidse, 64 


Tipulidse, 62 


Sminthuridae, 83 


Tabuda, 65 


Tischeriidae, 56 


Solenobia, 50 


Tachinidae, 68 


Tmetocera, 57 


Sphaeriidae, 37 


Tachyporus, 32 


Tolype, 53 


Sphaeritidee, 35 


Tachysphex, 28 


Tomicus, 40 


Sphseroceridae, 70 


Tachytes, 28 


Tomocerus, 83 


Sphaerophthalmus, 27 


Tanypezidse, 69 


Tomoxia, 39 


Sphecidae, 28 


Tanypus, 63 


Tortricidae, 57 


Spheciformia, 2 


Telamona, 74 


Tortricidia, 50 


Sphecius, 28 


Telea, 52 


Toyrmidae, 23 


Sphecodes, 29 


Teleas, 24 


Toxoptera, 76 


Sphenophorus, 41 


Telenomus, 24 


Tremex, 20 


Sphindidae, 38 


Telephoridae, 36 


Trichiosoma, 20 


Sphingidae, 51 


Temnochilidae, 33 


Trichobius, 72 



Index to Genera and Higher Groups. 



137 



Trichocera, 62 


Tropidopria, 24 


Trichodectidse, 18 


Tropoea, 52 


Trichodes, 35 


Trypetida?, 70 


Trichogrammatidse, 24 


Tryphon, 21 


Trichopria, 24 


Trypoxylonidse, 27 


Trichoptera, 46 


Tubulifera, 16 


Trichopterygidse, 37 


Typhlocybidse, 74 


Trichopoda, 67 




Trichothrips, 16 


Ulidiidse, 70 


Tridactylidse, 14 


Ulonata, 13 


Tridymus, 23 


Ululodes, 45 


Tiiepeolus, 29 


Uraniidse, 53 


Trigonaloidse, 24 


UratocheUa, 82 


Trinoton, 18 


Uroceridse, 20 


Trioxocera, 42 


Utetheisa, 54 


Trioza, 75 




Triphleps, 78 


Valentinia, 58 


Triprocris, 50 


Vanessa, 60 


Tritoma, 37 


Vanhomiidae, 25 


Trixoscelis, 71 


Veliidae, 78 


Troctes, 17 


Vespidse, 26 


Trogida:, 41 


Vespiformia, 1 


Trogositidfe, 33 




Tromoptera, 


Willistoniella, 69 



Xenidae, 42 
Xenopsylla, 73 
Xiphydriidse, 20 
Xyelidae, 19 
Xyleborus, 40 
Xylesthia, 58 
Xylina, 54 
Xylocopidse, 30 
Xylophagidae, 64 
Xyloryctidse, 58 
Xylota, 66 

Yponomeutida?, 5&, 58 
Ypsolophus, 56 

Zaitha, 77 
Zarsea, 20 
Zeuzera,50 
Zodion, 66 
Zoraptera, 17 
Zorotypidse, 17 
Zygsenidse, 53 
Zygentoma, 81 
Zygoptera, 43 



INDEX TO COMMON NAMES 



Alfalfa weevil, 41 
Angumois grain-moth, 56 
Ant-lions, 45 
Ants, 19, 25 
Aphis-lion, 45 
Apple Aphid, 76 
Apple Curculio, 41 
Apple leaf-hopper, 74 
Apple maggot, 70 
Apple tent-caterpillar, 53 
Apple twig-borer, 34 
Army worms, 54 
Asparagus beetle, 40 

Back-swimmers, 77 
Bag-worm, 50 
Bark-lice, 75 
Bean-weevil, 40 
Bedbug, 77 
Bee-moth, 50 
Bees, 19 ,29 
Beetles, 30 
Big bedbug, 79 
Bill-bugs, 41 
Bird lice, 18 
Biting lice, 18 
Blackberry crown-borer, 49 
Black-flies, 62 
Blister beetles, 40 
Blow-flies, 67 
Blue-bottle fly, 68 
Blues, 60 
Body louse, 19 
Boll-weevil, 41 
Bombadier beetle, 31 
Book-louse, 17 
Bot-flies, 67 
Box-elder plant-bug, 80 
Bristle-tail, 81 
Brown-tail moth, 55 
Bud-moth, 57 
Buffalo-gnats, 62 
Buffalo tree-hopper, 74 
Bugs, 76 
Bumble-bees, 29 
Butterflies, 48 

Cabbage Aphid, 76 
Cabbage butterfly, 60 
Cabbage maggot, 68 
Caddice-flies, 46 
Carolina locust, 13 
Carpenter moth, 50 
Carpet-beetle, 34 



Carrion beetles, 36 
Case-bearers, 57 
Caterpillar-hunter, 31 
Cat-flea, 73 
Canker-worms, 52 
Cave cricket, 14 
Cecropia moth, 52 
Chalcis-flies, 21 
Cheese-skipper, 71 
Cherry Aphid, 76 
Chinch-bug, 80 
Cicada, 73 
Cigar case-bearer, 57 
Click-beetles, 33 
Clothes moths, 58 
Clover weevil, 41 
Cochineal insect, 75 
Cockroaches, 16 
Codling moth, 57 
Colorado potato-beetle, 40 
Coppers, 60 
Corn bill-bugs, 41 
Corn ear-worm, 54 
Corn root-worms, 40 
Cotton boll-weevil, 41 
Cotton boll-worm, 54 
Cotton-stainer, 79 
Cotton-worm, 54 
Cottony scale, 75 
Crab-louse, 19 
Crane-flies, 62 
Crickets, 14 
Croton bug, 16 
Currant Aphid, 76 
Currant-borer, 49 
Currant maggot, 70 
Currant span-worm, 52 
Cut-worms, 54 

Daddy-long-legs, 62 
Damsel-flies, 43 
Dengue-fever mosquito, 62 
Diving beetles, 31 
Dobson, 44 
Dog-flea, 73 
Dog-louse, 18 
Dragon-flies, 43 

Earwigs, 15 

Elm bark-beetle, 40 

Elm leaf-beetle, 40 



Fall army-worm, 54 
Fall canker-worm, 52 



138 



Index to Common Names. 



Fall web-worm, 54 
Fig insects, 22 
Filaria mosquito, 62 
Fire-flies, 36 
Flat-head borers, 33 
Flea-beetles, 40 
Fleas, 72 
Flies, 61 
Flower-flies, 66 
Forester moth, 53 
Forest tent-caterpillar, 53 
Frit fly, 71 
Fungus gnats, 63 

Gad-flies, 64 
Gall-flies, 21 
Gall-gnats, 63 
Garden web-worm, 50 
Giant water-bugs, 77 
Gnats, 61, 63 
Grain Aphid, 76 
Granary weevil, 41 
Grape leaf-hopper, 74 
Grape Phylloxera, 76 
Grasshoppers, 13 
Green-bottle fly, 68 
Green fruit-worm, 54 
Greenhouse Thrips, 16 
Greenhouse white fly, 76 
Green locust, 14 
Ground beetles, 31 
Grouse locusts, 13 
Gypsy moth, 55 

Harlequin cabbage-bug, 80 
Hawk-moths, 51 
Hawthorn lace-bug, 79 
Head-louse, 19 
Hellgrammite, 44 
Hessian fly, 63 
Hog-louse, 19 
Honey-bee, 29 
Hop-aphid, 76 
Hornets, 26 
Horn-fly, 68 
Horse bot-fly, 67 
Horseflies, 64 
Housefly, 68 
Human flea, 73 

Ichneumon-flies, 19 
Indian meal-moth, 50 
lo moth, 52 

Jigger-flea, 72 
Joint-worms, 23 
Jumping plant-lice, 75 
June-bug, 41 



Katydids,14 
Kissing-bug, 79 

Lace-bugs, 79 

Lace-wing fly, 45 

Lady-birds, 37 

Larder beetle, 34 

Leaf-crumpler, 50 

Leaf-footed bug, 80 

Leaf-hoppers, 74 

Leaf-rollers, 57 

Leopard moth, 50 

Lesser apple-worm, 57 

Lice, 18 

Locust-borer, 40 

Locust leaf-miner, 40 

Locust, 13 

Long-horned grasshoppers, 14 

Long-horned locust, 14 

Longicorns, 40 

Louse, 18 

Luna moth, 52 

Malaria mosquito, 62 
Mantis, 16 
Marsh-treaders, 78 
May-flies, 43 
Meal snout-moth, 50 
Mealworm, 38 
Mealy-bugs, 75 
Mediterranean flour-moth, 50 
Mediterranean fruit-fly, 70 
Melon Aphid, 76 
Mexican cotton boll-weevil, 41 
Midges, 61, 63 
Milkweed butterfly, 59 
Mole crickets, 14 
Mosquitoes, 61, 62 
Moth-flies, 62 
Moths, 48 
Museum beetle, 34 

Nut-weevils, 41 

Oak scales, 75 
Onion maggot, 68 
Onion Thrips, 16 
Owlet moths, 54 
Ox-warble, 67 
Oyster-shell scale, 75 

Palmer worm, 56 
Paper-w r asps, 26 
Pea Aphid, 76 
Peach-borer, 49 
Peach-twig borer, 58 
Pear midge, 63 
Pear Psylla, 75 



140 



Key to Families of North American Insects. 



Pear Thrips, 16 
Pea-weevil, 40 
Periodical Cicada, 73 
Pickle-moth, 50 
Pigmy locusts, 13 
Pine bark-beetles, 40 
Pine saw-flies, 20 
Pistol case-bearer, 57 
Plague flea, 73 
Plant-lice, 76 
Plum Curculio, 41 
Polyphemus moth, 52 
Pomace-fly, 71 
Poplar weevil, 41 
Potato-beetle, 40 
Potato-tuber moth, 56 
Potter-wasps, 26 
Powder-post beetles, 34 
Praying mantis, 16 
Predatory flower-bug, 78 
Promethia moth, 52 
Prominents, 52 
Prune-twig borer, 34 
Punkies, 63 

Radish-maggot, 68 
Rat-flea, 73 

Hed-hump apple-caterpillar, 52 
Hoaches, 16 
Robber-flies, 65 
Rocky-mountain locust, 13 
Root web-worm, 50 
Rose-chafer, 41 
Rosy Aphid, 76 
Round-head apple-borer, 40 
Rove-beetles, 32 

Salmon-flies, 44 
Sand-flies, 43 
San Jose Scale, 75 
Saw-flies, 19 
Scale insects, 75 
Scorpion-flies, 46 
Screw-worm, 68 
Scurfy-scale, 75 
Sheep bot-fly, 67 
Shore-bug, 79 
Shot-hole borer, 40 
Skippers, 48, 59 
Soft scales, 75 
Span-worm, 52 
Sphinx-caterpillars, 51 
Spittle insects, 74 
Spring canker-worm, 52 
Spruce bark-beetle, 40 
Squash-borer, 49 
Squash-bug, 80 



Stable-fly, 68 
Stalk-borer, 54 
Stilt-bugs, 80 
Stink-bugs, 80 
Stone-flies, 44 

Strawberry crown-moth, 49 
Strawberry leaf-roller, 57 
Strawberry root- weevil, 41 
Strawberry Thrips, 16 
Swallowtail butterflies, 60 

Tarnished plant-bug, 78 
Tent-caterpillars, 53 
Termites, 17 
Terrapin scale, 75 
Thrips, 16 
Tiger-beetles, 31 
Tiger-moth, 54 
Timber-beetle, 40 
True-bugs, 76 
Tree-crickets, 14 
Tree-hoppers, 74 
Tumble-bug, 41 
Tussock moth, 55 
Twig-pruners, 40 

Variegated cut-worm, 54 

Walking stick, 14 

Wasps, 19 

W'ater-boatman, 77 

Water-bugs, 77 

Water scavenger beetles, 32 

Water-scorpions, 77 

Water-striders, 78 

Water-tigers, 31 

Weevils, 30, 41 

\Vheat midge, 63 

Wheat-stem maggot, 71 

Wheat-stem saw-fly, 20 

Whirligig beetles, 31 

White ants, 17 

White ermine moth, 54 

White-flies, 76 

WTiite-marked tussock-moth, 55 

White-pine weevil, 41 

Willow saw-fly, 20 

Willow weevil, 41 

Wireworm beetles, 33 

Wood-wasps, 19 

Woolly-bear caterpillars, 54 

Yellow-fever mosquito, 62 
Yellow-jackets, 26 
Yellow-neck caterpillar, 52 
Yellows, 60 
Yucca moths, 55